Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A Blockchain-Based Multi-Factor Authentication Model for Cloud-Enabled Internet of Vehicles

Version 1 : Received: 18 July 2021 / Approved: 20 July 2021 / Online: 20 July 2021 (09:27:29 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Kebande, V.R.; Awaysheh, F.M.; Ikuesan, R.A.; Alawadi, S.A.; Alshehri, M.D. A Blockchain-Based Multi-Factor Authentication Model for a Cloud-Enabled Internet of Vehicles. Sensors 2021, 21, 6018. Kebande, V.R.; Awaysheh, F.M.; Ikuesan, R.A.; Alawadi, S.A.; Alshehri, M.D. A Blockchain-Based Multi-Factor Authentication Model for a Cloud-Enabled Internet of Vehicles. Sensors 2021, 21, 6018.

Journal reference: Sensors 2021, 21, 6018
DOI: 10.3390/s21186018

Abstract

Continuous and emerging advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have enabled IoT-to-Cloud applications to be induced by data pipelines coupled with Edge Intelligence-based architectures. Advanced vehicular networks greatly benefit from these architectures due to the implicit functionalities that are focused on realizing the Internet-of-Vehicle (IoV) vision. However, IoV is susceptible to attacks, where adversaries can easily exploit existing vulnerabilities. Several attacks may succeed due to inadequate or weaker authentication techniques. Hence, there is a timely need for hardening the authentication process through cutting-edge access control mechanisms. This paper proposes a Blockchain-based Multi-Factor authentication model that uses an embedded Digital Signature (MFBC_eDS) for vehicular clouds and Cloud-enabled IoV. Our proposed MFBC_eDS model consists of a scheme that integrates the Security Assertion Mark-up Language (SAML) to the Single Sign-On (SSO) capabilities for a connected Edge-to Cloud ecosystem. MFBC_eDS draws an essential comparison with the baseline authentication scheme suggested by Karla and Sood. Based on the foundations of Karla and Sood’s scheme, an embedded Probabilistic Polynomial-Time Algorithm (ePPTA) and an additional Hash function for the Pi generated during Karla and Sood’s authentication are proposed and discussed. The preliminary analysis of the proposition shows that the approach is more suitable to counter major adversarial attacks in an IoV-centered environment based on Dolev-Yao adversarial model while satisfying aspects of the CIA triad.

Keywords

Blockchain; Multi-Factor Authentication; Access Control; Internet of Vehicles; Cloud-Enabled Systems

Subject

MATHEMATICS & COMPUTER SCIENCE, Algebra & Number Theory

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