Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake: Data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

Version 1 : Received: 15 July 2021 / Approved: 16 July 2021 / Online: 16 July 2021 (17:07:29 CEST)

How to cite: Vargas-Meza, J.; Cervantes-Armenta, M.A.; Campos-Nonato, I.; Nieto, C.; Marrón-Ponce, J.A.; Barquera, S.; Flores-Aldana, M.; Rodríguez-Ramírez, S. Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake: Data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016. Preprints 2021, 2021070391 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0391.v1). Vargas-Meza, J.; Cervantes-Armenta, M.A.; Campos-Nonato, I.; Nieto, C.; Marrón-Ponce, J.A.; Barquera, S.; Flores-Aldana, M.; Rodríguez-Ramírez, S. Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake: Data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016. Preprints 2021, 2021070391 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0391.v1).

Abstract

Population studies have demonstrated an association between sodium (Na) and po-tassium (K) intake and levels of blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol. The aim of this study was to describe the dietary intake and distribution of Na and K in Mexicans, and their as-sociation with metabolic risk outcomes. We analyzed a national survey that included 4,219 participants. Dietary information was obtained through a 24-hour recall. Foods and beverages were classified based on the degree of processing. BP and biomarkers in blood and urine were measured. The mean intake (mg/d) of Na was 1512 in pre-schoolchildren, 2844 in schoolchildren, 3743 in adolescents, and 3132 in adults. The mean intake of K was 1616 in pre-schoolchildren, 2256 in schoolchildren, 2967 in adolescents, and 3401 in adults. Processed and ultra-processed foods (UPF) contribute to sodium intake: 49% in preschool and schoolchildren, 47% in adolescents, and 39% in adults. Adults in the fourth quartile of sodium intake had lower serum concentrations of cholesterol (181.4 mg/dL) and HDL-c (35.5 mg/dL). The Mexican population has high Na and low K intakes. There is a relationship between Na sodium consumption and cholesterol, and LDL levels. UPF contributes to almost 40% of the sodium consumed by Mexicans.

Keywords

sodium; potassium; national survey; Mexico;

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