Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Blockchain Oracle Problem in Decentralized Finance - A Multivocal Approach

Version 1 : Received: 9 July 2021 / Approved: 9 July 2021 / Online: 9 July 2021 (15:44:33 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Caldarelli, G.; Ellul, J. The Blockchain Oracle Problem in Decentralized Finance—A Multivocal Approach. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 7572. Caldarelli, G.; Ellul, J. The Blockchain Oracle Problem in Decentralized Finance—A Multivocal Approach. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 7572.


Decentralized Finance (DeFi) takes the promise of blockchain a step further and aims to transform traditional financial products into trustless and transparent protocols that run without involving intermediaries. Similar to how 2017 was the year of ICOs, 2020 was the year of DeFI with more than $15 billion of total investments. The decentralized platforms utilize oracles to retrieve asset data from the external world, but their choice and management criteria are often unknown to the end-users. If oracles are poorly selected or managed, the funds of a rising number of investors are inevitably in danger. The issue known as “the oracle problem,” which makes real-world applications controversial and debated due to the loss of decentralization, had recently drawn attention to DeFi given the crescent number of related hacks that caused the loss of millions of dollars held in DeFi projects. With a multivocal approach, this paper aims to shed light on the pattern that identifies the oracle problem in DeFi and outline the most promising ways to overcome the related weaknesses. This research supports the view that the oracle problem in decentralized finance bears specific characteristics which require standardization and appropriate economic incentives to be addressed.


Blockchain; Decentralized Finance; Oracles; Smart Contracts


Computer Science and Mathematics, Algebra and Number Theory

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 11 September 2022
Commenter: Joe Trader
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Thank you for your great article. I'm also reading this free DeFi Tokonomo Academy to trade better!
+ Respond to this comment

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
* All users must log in before leaving a comment
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 1
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.