Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Candida glabrata: Adopting Pathogenicity and Resistant Mechanisms for Survival

Version 1 : Received: 20 June 2021 / Approved: 23 June 2021 / Online: 23 June 2021 (11:21:53 CEST)

How to cite: Hassan, Y.; Chew, S.Y.; Than, L.T.L. Candida glabrata: Adopting Pathogenicity and Resistant Mechanisms for Survival. Preprints 2021, 2021060575 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0575.v1). Hassan, Y.; Chew, S.Y.; Than, L.T.L. Candida glabrata: Adopting Pathogenicity and Resistant Mechanisms for Survival. Preprints 2021, 2021060575 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202106.0575.v1).

Abstract

Candida glabrata is a yeast of increasing medical relevance, particularly in critically ill patients. It is the second most isolated Candida species associated with invasive candidiasis (IC) behind C. albicans. The attributed higher incidence is primarily due to an increase in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) population, cancer, and diabetes patients. The elderly population and the frequent use of indwelling medical devices are also predisposing factors. The work aimed to review various virulence factors that facilitate the survival of pathogenic C. glabrata in IC. The available published research articles related to the pathogenicity of C. glabrata were retrieved and reviewed from four credible databases, mainly Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Scopus. The articles highlighted many virulence factors associated with pathogenicity in C. glabrata, including adherence to a susceptible host surface, evading host defences, and producing hydrolytic enzymes (e.g., phospholipases, proteases, and haemolysins). The factors facilitate infection initiation. Other virulent factors include iron regulation and genetic mutations. Accordingly, biofilm production, tolerance to high-stress environments, and development of resistance to the antifungal drug, notably to fluconazole and other azole derivatives, were reported. The review provided evident pathogenic mechanisms and antifungal resistance associated with C. glabrata in ensuring its sustenance and survival.

Subject Areas

Candida glabrata; candidiasis; virulence factors; biofilm; antifungal drug resistance

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