Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

About the Equivalence of the Latent D-Scoring Model and the Two-Parameter Logistic Item Response Model

Version 1 : Received: 27 May 2021 / Approved: 28 May 2021 / Online: 28 May 2021 (12:00:49 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Journal reference: Mathematics 2021
DOI: 10.3390/math9131465


This article shows that the recently proposed latent D-scoring model of Dimitrov is statistically equivalent to the two-parameter logistic item response model. An analytical derivation and a numerical illustration are employed for demonstrating this finding. Hence, estimation techniques for the two-parameter logistic model can be used for estimating the latent D-scoring model. In an empirical example using PISA data, differences of country ranks are investigated when using different metrics for the latent trait. In the example, the choice of the latent trait metric matters for the ranking of countries. Finally, it is argued that an item response model with bounded latent trait values like the latent D-scoring model might have advantages for reporting results in terms of interpretation.


latent D-scoring model; logistic item response model; identifiability; item parameter estimation; PISA



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