Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Association Between Vitamin C Deficiency and Metabolic Syndrome Among Patients Who Developed Kidney Disease

Version 1 : Received: 25 May 2021 / Approved: 26 May 2021 / Online: 26 May 2021 (13:10:40 CEST)

How to cite: Negesse, A.; Moges, B.; kebede, T.; Kifle, A.; Alemayehu, D.; Negesse, Y.; Tesfaye, S.; Fite, A. The Association Between Vitamin C Deficiency and Metabolic Syndrome Among Patients Who Developed Kidney Disease. Preprints 2021, 2021050637 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0637.v1). Negesse, A.; Moges, B.; kebede, T.; Kifle, A.; Alemayehu, D.; Negesse, Y.; Tesfaye, S.; Fite, A. The Association Between Vitamin C Deficiency and Metabolic Syndrome Among Patients Who Developed Kidney Disease. Preprints 2021, 2021050637 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0637.v1).

Abstract

Introduction: Elevated albuminuria is an important outcome of diabetic complications and metabolic syndrome (MetS), the complex metabolic abnormalities manifested as glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia and enlarged waist circumference. These coexisting cardio-metabolic abnormalities are also associated with oxidative stress and low grade inflammation. Vitamin C (vitC) has long been recognized as hydrophilic antioxidant and blocker of oxidative stress which also has a protective role of MetS and kidney disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the predictive effect of vitC deficiency on kidney disease among patients who developed metabolic syndrome. Method and procedures: To meet this objective, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 data were used. NHANES represents the civilian, non-institutionalized US population data implemented for continuous system of monitoring health, nutritional status and well-being in the US. The predictive power of MetS on AU and vitC deficiency (vitC < 0.25 mg/dl) as effect modifier was assessed with binary logistic regression. Age, gender, race and BMI were used as covariates. Results: Among the respondents, 1.9% of the US population had risk of kidney damage, whereas 14.5 % of respondents had MetS. MetS was significantly positively correlated with AU (p < 0.01). Higher elevation of albuminuria creatinine ratio (ACR) was found in participants with VCD. The regression models developed in this study showed that the severity of kidney disease measured by ACR was increased among individuals who developed both VCD and MetS compared with individuals who developed MetS only (AOR=5.53; 95% CI: 2.73, 11.21). Increasing age and being African-American in race were independently associated with elevated AU. Conclusion: Specific considerations tailored to metabolic syndrome, vitamin C and kidney diseases measured by ACR screening and monitoring mechanisms at the community level is critical to tackle further medical complications. Moreover, the role of VitC fortified foods on prevention of kidney diseases among patients with MetS warrant further investigation.

Keywords

Metabolic syndrome; vitamin C deficiency; kidney disease; Albuminuria; USA

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