Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

# System of Time Fractional Models for COVID-19: Modeling, Analysis and Solutions

Version 1 : Received: 1 April 2021 / Approved: 2 April 2021 / Online: 2 April 2021 (11:32:28 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Iyiola, O.; Oduro, B.; Zabilowicz, T.; Iyiola, B.; Kenes, D. System of Time Fractional Models for COVID-19: Modeling, Analysis and Solutions. Symmetry 2021, 13, 787. Iyiola, O.; Oduro, B.; Zabilowicz, T.; Iyiola, B.; Kenes, D. System of Time Fractional Models for COVID-19: Modeling, Analysis and Solutions. Symmetry 2021, 13, 787.

## Abstract

The emergence of the COVID-19 outbreak has caused a pandemic situation in over 210 countries. Controlling the spread of this disease has proven difficult despite several resources employed. Millions of hospitalization and deaths have been observed, and thousands of cases daily with many measures in place. Due to the complex nature of COVID-19, we proposed a system of time-fractional equations to understand the transmission of the disease better. Nonlocality involved in the model has made fractional differential equations appropriate for modeling the behavior. However, solving these types of models is computationally demanding. Our proposed generalized compartmental COVID-19 model incorporates effective contact rate, transition rate (from exposed quarantine and recovered to susceptible and infected quarantined individuals), quarantine rate, disease-induced death rate, natural death rate, natural recovery rate, recovery rate of quarantine infected for a holistic study of the coronavirus disease. A detailed analysis of the proposed model is carried out, including the existence and uniqueness of solutions, local and global stability analysis of the disease-free equilibrium analysis, and sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, numerical solutions of the proposed model are obtained with the generalized Adam-Bashforth-Moulton method developed for the fractional order model. Our analysis and solutions profile show that each of these incorporated parameters is very important in controlling the spread of COVID-19, especially quarantining exposed and infected individuals and the effective contact rate. Based on the results with different fractional order, we observe that there seems to be a third or even fourth wave of the spike in cases of COVID-19, which is what is happening right now in many countries.

## Keywords

Coronavirus; COVID-19; Diseases Modeling; Time-fractional; Quarantine

## Subject

Computer Science and Mathematics, Algebra and Number Theory