Working Paper Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Sars-Cov-2 Pandemic: A Narrative Review on Lessons and Viewpoints Arising From Both the History of Medicine and From the Biological Behaviour of Other Well-Known Viruses

Version 1 : Received: 17 February 2021 / Approved: 19 February 2021 / Online: 19 February 2021 (14:34:38 CET)

How to cite: Fiorino, S.; Tateo, F.; De Biase, D.; Gallo, C.G.; Orlandi, P.E.; Corazza, I.; Budriesi, R.; Micucci, M.; Visani, M.; Loggi, E.; Hong, W.; Pica, R.; Lari, F.; Zippi, M. Sars-Cov-2 Pandemic: A Narrative Review on Lessons and Viewpoints Arising From Both the History of Medicine and From the Biological Behaviour of Other Well-Known Viruses. Preprints 2021, 2021020442 Fiorino, S.; Tateo, F.; De Biase, D.; Gallo, C.G.; Orlandi, P.E.; Corazza, I.; Budriesi, R.; Micucci, M.; Visani, M.; Loggi, E.; Hong, W.; Pica, R.; Lari, F.; Zippi, M. Sars-Cov-2 Pandemic: A Narrative Review on Lessons and Viewpoints Arising From Both the History of Medicine and From the Biological Behaviour of Other Well-Known Viruses. Preprints 2021, 2021020442

Abstract

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of the current pandemic worldwide. The pathological condition induced by this pathogen is known as COVID-19 disease. SARS-CoV-2 associated pandemic has been defined as a “public health emergency of international concern” by the International Health Regulation Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization. To date, considerable efforts are in progress to develop more advanced strategies against SARS-CoV-2. Despite the numerous scientific studies published, our knowledge regarding this pathogen is still incomplete, as this virus has been identified only recently. Therefore, scientific investigation of the SARS-CoV-2 has been possible only for a short period of time and effective management of the serious forms of this disease is still lacking. Considerable efforts are in progress worldwide with the purpose to develop more advanced strategies against this pathogen. In this review, we have analyzed the structural and the biological SARS-CoV-2 characteristics and those of other well-known RNA viruses, with the aim to identify possible similarities and analogies between all these pathogens, may be a very useful approach. These infectious agents have been widely studied since several years ago and, a large series of scientific reports are available in the literature regarding this topic. Therefore, focusing on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Influenza viruses (IVs), we have collected their historical data, clinical manifestations, pathogenetic mechanisms and related infections. Taking advantage of the results of our research, we have assembled this narrative review, with the aim to get useful insights and lessons from HIV, HCV and IVs characteristics and, consequently, to transfer the obtained knowledge to the study of SARS-CoV-2 biology. There are well known differences between all these pathogens. In particular, they present a distinct mode of transmission, as SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza viruses are airborne pathogens, whereas HIV and HCV are bloodborne infectious agents. However, these viruses exhibit some potential common clinical manifestations and pathogenetic mechanisms and their understanding may contribute to establishing preventive measures and new therapies against SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, we have analysed and discussed the following points: 1) the biology, the pathogenesis and the clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, HIV, HCV and IVs in mankind; 2) the onset and spreading of pandemics caused by respiratory viruses according to a perspective historical point of view; 3) the possible development of a persistent SARS-CoV-2 reservoir worldwide; 4) the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection/reactivation; 5) the possible involvement and impact of climatic factors in increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 spreading.

Subject Areas

coronavirus; COVID-19; Hepatitis C Virus (HCV); Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); Influenza viruses ribonucleic acid (RNA); SARS-CoV-2

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