Marceca, G.P.; Tomasello, L.; Distefano, R.; Acunzo, M.; Croce, C.M.; Nigita, G. Detecting and Characterizing A-To-I microRNA Editing in Cancer. Cancers2021, 13, 1699.
Marceca, G.P.; Tomasello, L.; Distefano, R.; Acunzo, M.; Croce, C.M.; Nigita, G. Detecting and Characterizing A-To-I microRNA Editing in Cancer. Cancers 2021, 13, 1699.
RNA editing involves the insertion, deletion or substitution of single nucleotides within a RNA molecule, without altering the DNA sequence. Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing consists of an RNA modification where single adenosines along the RNA sequence are converted into inosines. Such a biochemical transformation is catalyzed by enzymes belonging to the family of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) and occurs either co- or post-transcriptionally. Initially, the A-to-I RNA editing phenomenon was discovered and studied in messenger RNAs (mRNAs), where it can influence RNA splicing and cause the recoding of codon sequences. The employment of more powerful, high-throughput detection methods has recently revealed that A-to-I editing widely occurs in non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) acting as translation inhibitors, known to exert relevant roles in controlling cell cycle, proliferation, and cancer development. Indeed, a growing number of recent researches have evidenced the importance of miRNA editing in cancer biology by exploiting various detection and validation methods. Herein, we briefly overview early and currently available A-to-I miRNA editing detection and validation methods and discuss the significance of A-to-I miRNA editing in human cancer.
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