Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Algebraic Rules for the Percentage Composition of Oligomers in Genomes

Version 1 : Received: 17 January 2021 / Approved: 18 January 2021 / Online: 18 January 2021 (16:15:00 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 25 February 2021 / Approved: 1 March 2021 / Online: 1 March 2021 (14:14:56 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 21 June 2021 / Approved: 23 June 2021 / Online: 23 June 2021 (11:49:51 CEST)

How to cite: Petoukhov, S. Algebraic Rules for the Percentage Composition of Oligomers in Genomes. Preprints 2021, 2021010360. Petoukhov, S. Algebraic Rules for the Percentage Composition of Oligomers in Genomes. Preprints 2021, 2021010360.


The article presents the author's results of studying hidden rules of structural organizations of long DNA sequences in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. The results concern some rules of percentages (or probabilities) of n-plets in genomes. To reveal such rules, the author considers genomic DNA nucleotide sequences as multilayers sequences of n-plets and studies the percentage contents of n-plets in different layers. Unexpected rules of invariance of total sums of percentages in certain tetra-groupings of n-plets in different layers of genomic DNA sequences are revealed. These discovered rules are candidates for the role of universal genomic rules. A tensor family of matrix representations of interrelated DNA-alphabets of 4 nucleotides, 16 doublets, 64 triplets, and 256 tetraplets is used in the study. This matrix approach allows revealing algebraic properties of the mentioned genetic rules of probabilities, which are useful for developing algebraic and quantum biology. Some analogies of the discovered genetic phenomena with phenomena of Gestalt psychology are noted and discussed. The author connects the received results about the genomic percentages rules with a supposition of P. Jordan, who is one of the creators of quantum mechanics and quantum biology, that life's missing laws are the rules of chance and probability of the quantum world.


DNA sequences; genomes; percentages of n-plets; binary-oppositions; tensor family of matrices; tetra-groupings; quantum biology


Biology and Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 1 March 2021
Commenter: Sergey Petoukhov
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: new sections, many additional materials, results, figures, and references.
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