Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

In Schizophrenia, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms Are Driven by Immune-Inflammatory Pathways.

Version 1 : Received: 30 December 2020 / Approved: 31 December 2020 / Online: 31 December 2020 (09:42:35 CET)

How to cite: Almulla, A.; Al-Rawi, K.; Maes, M.; Kadhem Al-Hakeim, H. In Schizophrenia, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms Are Driven by Immune-Inflammatory Pathways.. Preprints 2020, 2020120783 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0783.v1). Almulla, A.; Al-Rawi, K.; Maes, M.; Kadhem Al-Hakeim, H. In Schizophrenia, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms Are Driven by Immune-Inflammatory Pathways.. Preprints 2020, 2020120783 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0783.v1).

Abstract

Background. The aim of this study is to examine whether biomarkers of the immune-inflammatory response (IRS) and endogenous opioid (EOS) systems are associated with affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Methods. We recruited 115 schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls and assessed the Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAM-A) rating Scale scores as well as serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, eotaxin (CCL11), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) opioid receptors.Results. The HDRS and HAM-A scores are significantly and positively correlated with a) psychosis, hostility, excitation, mannerism, negative symptoms, psychomotor retardation, and formal thought disorders; and b) lowered scores on semantic and episodic memory, executive functions, and attention tests as measured with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Psychiatry. Both HDRS and HAM-A are significantly increased in non-responders to treatment as compared with partial responders. Both affective scores are strongly associated with latent vectors extracted from all symptoms, reflecting overall severity of psychosis (OSOS), and neurocognitive test scores, reflecting a generalized cognitive decline (G-CoDe). The HDRS score was strongly and positively associated with IL-6, HMGB1, KOR, and MOR levels, and the HAM-A score with IL-6, IL-10, CCL11, HMGB1, KOR, and MOR levels. A single latent trait may be extracted from OSOS, G-CoDe, and the HDRS and HAMA scores, and this latent vector score is strongly predicted by HMGB1, MOR, and DKK1.Conclusion. Immune-inflammatory and EOS pathways contribute to the phenome of schizophrenia, which comprises OSOS, affective, and physiosomatic symptoms, and G-CoDe.

Keywords

depression; anxiety; melancholia; inflammation; neuro-immune; physiosomatic; biomarkers; schizophrenia

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