Tiberia, A.; Mascitelli, A.; D’Adderio, L.P.; Federico, S.; Marisaldi, M.; Porcù, F.; Realini, E.; Gatti, A.; Ursi, A.; Fuschino, F.; Tavani, M.; Dietrich, S. Time Evolution of Storms Producing Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes Using ERA5 Reanalysis Data, GPS, Lightning and Geo-stationary Satellite Observations. Remote Sens.2021, 13, 784.
Tiberia, A.; Mascitelli, A.; D’Adderio, L.P.; Federico, S.; Marisaldi, M.; Porcù, F.; Realini, E.; Gatti, A.; Ursi, A.; Fuschino, F.; Tavani, M.; Dietrich, S. Time Evolution of Storms Producing Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes Using ERA5 Reanalysis Data, GPS, Lightning and Geo-stationary Satellite Observations. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 784.
In this article we report the first investigation over time of the atmospheric conditions around TGFs occurrence, using GPS sensors in combination with geostationary satellite observations and ERA5 reanalyses data. The goal is to understand which characteristics are favourable to the development of these events and to investigate if any precursor signals can be expected. A total of 9 TGFs, occurred at a distance lower than 45 km from a GPS sensor, were analysed and two of them are shown here as an example analysis. Moreover, the lightning activity, collected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) was used in order to identify any links and correlations with TGF occurrence and PWV trends. The combined use of GPS and the stroke rate trends identified, for all cases, a recurred pattern in which an increase of PWV is observed on a timescale of about two hours before the TGF occurrence that can be placed within the lightning peak. The temporal relation between the PWV trend and TGF occurrence is strictly related to the position of GPS sensors in relation to TGF coordinates. The life cycle of these storms observed by geostationary sensors, described TGFs producing clouds as intense with a wide range of extensions and, in all cases, the TGF is located at the edge of the convective cell. Furthermore, the satellite data give an added value in associating the GPS water vapor trend to the convective cell generating the TGF. The investigation with ERA5 reanalyses data showed that TGFs mainly occur in convective environment with not exceptional values with respect to the monthly average value of parameters measured in the same location. Moreover the analysis showed the strong potential of the use of GPS data for the troposphere characterization in areas with complex territorial morphology. This study provided indications on the dynamics of convective systems linked to TGFs and will certainly help refine our understanding on their production highlights a potential approach through the use of GPS data to explore the lightning activity trend and the TGFs occurrence.
GPS; TGF; ERA-5; lightning; geostationary; water vapour
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