Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Cardiac Effects of Performance-Enhancing Medications: Caffeine vs. Anabolic Steroids

Version 1 : Received: 21 December 2020 / Approved: 22 December 2020 / Online: 22 December 2020 (12:39:52 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Sivalokanathan, S.; Małek, Ł.A.; Malhotra, A. The Cardiac Effects of Performance-Enhancing Medications: Caffeine vs. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 324. Sivalokanathan, S.; Małek, Ł.A.; Malhotra, A. The Cardiac Effects of Performance-Enhancing Medications: Caffeine vs. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 324.

Journal reference: Diagnostics 2021, 11, 324
DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics11020324

Abstract

Several performance-enhancing or ergogenic drugs have been linked to both significant adverse cardiovascular effects and increased cardiovascular risk. Even with increased scrutiny on the governance of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) in professional sport and heightened awareness of the associated cardiovascular risk, there are some who are prepared to risk their use to gain competitive advantage. Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world and its ergogenic properties have been reported for decades. Thus, the removal of caffeine from the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of banned substances, in 2004, has naturally led to an exponential rise in its use amongst athletes. The response to caffeine is complex and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Whilst the evidence may be equivocal, the ability of an athlete to train longer or at a greater power output cannot be overlooked. Furthermore, its impact on the myocardium remains unanswered. In contrast, anabolic steroids are recognised PEDs that improve athletic performance, increase muscle growth and suppress fatigue. Their use, however, comes at a cost, afflicting the individual with several side effects, including those that are detrimental to the cardiovascular system. This review addresses the effects of the two commonest PEDs, one legal, the other prohibited, and their respective effects on the heart, as well as the long-term implications.

Keywords

sports cardiology; athlete; caffeine; anabolic steroids; heart disease; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

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