Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor: A Review of Main Molecular Abnormalities and Emerging Therapy

Version 1 : Received: 10 December 2020 / Approved: 11 December 2020 / Online: 11 December 2020 (15:53:20 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Mello, C.A.; Campos, F.A.B.; Santos, T.G.; Silva, M.L.G.; Torrezan, G.T.; Costa, F.D.; Formiga, M.N.; Nicolau, U.; Nascimento, A.G.; Silva, C.; Curado, M.P.; Nakagawa, S.A.; Lopes, A.; Aguiar, S., Jr. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor: A Review of Main Molecular Abnormalities and Emerging Therapy. Cancers 2021, 13, 498. Mello, C.A.; Campos, F.A.B.; Santos, T.G.; Silva, M.L.G.; Torrezan, G.T.; Costa, F.D.; Formiga, M.N.; Nicolau, U.; Nascimento, A.G.; Silva, C.; Curado, M.P.; Nakagawa, S.A.; Lopes, A.; Aguiar, S., Jr. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor: A Review of Main Molecular Abnormalities and Emerging Therapy. Cancers 2021, 13, 498.

Journal reference: Cancers 2021, 13, 498
DOI: 10.3390/cancers13030498

Abstract

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is an extremely rare, aggressive sarcoma affecting adolescents and young adults with male predominance. Generally, it originates from serosal surface of abdominal cavity. The hallmark characteristic of DSRCT is the EWSR1-WT1 gene fusion. This translocation up-regulates the expression of PDGFRα, VEGF and other proteins related to tumor and vascular cell proliferation. Current management of DSRCT includes a combination of chemotherapy, radiation and aggressive cytoreductive surgery plus intra-peritoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy (HIPEC). Despite advances in multimodal therapy, outcomes remain poor since the majority of patients present disease recurrence and die within 3 years. The dismal survival makes DSRCT an orphan disease with urgent need of new drugs. The treatment of advanced and recurrent disease with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as pazopanib, sunitinib, and mTOR inhibitors have been evaluated in small studies. Recent works using comprehensive molecular profiling of DSRCT identified potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we aim to describe the current studies conducted to better understand DSRCT biology and to explore the new therapeutic strategies under investigation in preclinical models and in early phase clinical trials.

Keywords

desmoplastic small round cell tumor; treatment; prognosis; surgery; radiotherapy; chemotherapy; tyrosine kinase receptor; target therapy; rare disease

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