Preprint Concept Paper Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Identification of Composite Combinations: Key to Validate Goldbach Conjecture

Version 1 : Received: 20 November 2020 / Approved: 23 November 2020 / Online: 23 November 2020 (14:46:17 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 29 December 2020 / Approved: 29 December 2020 / Online: 29 December 2020 (16:07:49 CET)

How to cite: Khare, M.; Chitta, K. Identification of Composite Combinations: Key to Validate Goldbach Conjecture. Preprints 2020, 2020110593. Khare, M.; Chitta, K. Identification of Composite Combinations: Key to Validate Goldbach Conjecture. Preprints 2020, 2020110593.


This paper discusses a possible approach to validate the Goldbach conjucture which states that all even numbers can be expressed as a summation of two prime numbers. For this purpose the paper begins with the concept of successive-addition-of-digits-of-an-integer-number (SADN) and its properties in terms of basic algebraic functions like addition, multiplication and subtraction. This concept of SADN forms the basis for classifying all odd numbers into 3 series- the S1, S3 and S5 series- which comprise of odd numbers of SADN(7,4,1), SADN(3,9,6) and SADN(5,2,8) respectively and follow a cyclical order. The S1 and S5 series are of interest in the analysis since they include both prime and composite numbers while the S3 series exclusively consists of composite numbers. Furthermore, the multiplicative property of SADN shows why composites on the S1 series are derived as products of intra-series elements of the S1 and S5 series while composites on the S5 series are derived as products of inter-series elements of the S1 and S5 series. The role of SADN is also important in determining the relevant series for identifying the combination of primes for a given even number since it shows why such combinations for even numbers of SADN(1,4,7) will be found on the S5 series while those for even numbers of SADN(2,5,8) will lie on the S1 series and both the series have a role to play in identifying the prime number combinations for even numbers with SADN(3,6,9). Thereafter, the analysis moves to calculating the total number of acceptable combinations for a given even number that would include combinations in the nature of two composites (c1+c2), one prime and one composite (p+c) and two primes (p1+p2). A cyclical pattern followed by even numbers is also discussed in this context. Identifying the c1+c2 and p+c combinations and thereafter subtracting them from the total number of combinations will yield the number of p1+p2 combinations. For this purpose the paper discusses a general method to calculate the number of composites on the S1 and S5 series for a given number and provides a detailed method for deriving the number of c1+c2 combinations. The paper presents this analysis as a proof to validate the Goldbach conjecture. Since even numbers can be of SADN 1 to 9 and the relation between nTc (i.e. total number of acceptable combinations) and nc(i.e. number of composites) for all even numbers can either be of nTc > nc or nTc ≤ nc, the paper shows that the Goldbach conjecture is true for both these categories of even numbers. In this manner this analysis is totally inclusive of all even numbers in general terms and since the analysis of every even number is common in methodology but unique in compilation, apart from being totally inclusive, it is also mutually exclusive in nature. This proves that the Goldbach conjecture which states that all even numbers can be expressed as atleast one combination of two prime numbers holds true for all even numbers, across all categories possible. Additionally this approach proves that the identification of p1+p2 combinations which would validate the Goldbach conjecture lies in the identification of c1+c2 combinations.


Goldbach conjecture; Goldbach problem; Primes; Distribution of Primes; Primes and integers; Additive questions involving primes


Computer Science and Mathematics, Algebra and Number Theory

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 29 December 2020
Commenter: Manish Khare
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: In the present version of the paper, appendices 1, 2 and 3 are included. These appendices were missing in the earlier version of the paper. In addition to it, hyperlinks of all sections are provided in the revised version.  
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