Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Weak Multiplier Hopf Algebras II: The Source and Target Algebras

Version 1 : Received: 9 November 2020 / Approved: 10 November 2020 / Online: 10 November 2020 (09:08:04 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Daele, A.V.; Wang, S. Weak Multiplier Hopf Algebras II: Source and Target Algebras. Symmetry 2020, 12, 1975. Daele, A.V.; Wang, S. Weak Multiplier Hopf Algebras II: Source and Target Algebras. Symmetry 2020, 12, 1975.

Journal reference: Symmetry 2020, 12, 1975
DOI: 10.3390/sym12121975


Let $(A,\Delta)$ be a {\it weak multiplier Hopf algebra} as introduced in [VD-W3] (see also [VD-W2]). It is a pair of a non-degenerate algebra $A$, with or without identity, and a coproduct $\Delta$ on $A$, satisfying certain properties. If the algebra has an identity and the coproduct is unital, then we have a Hopf algebra. If the algebra has no identity, but if the coproduct is non-degenerate (which is the equivalent of being unital if the algebra has an identity), then the pair would be a multiplier Hopf algebra. If the algebra has an identity, but the coproduct is not unital, we have a weak Hopf algebra. In the general case, we neither assume $A$ to have an identity nor do we assume $\Delta$ to be non-degenerate and so we work with a {\it genuine} weak multiplier Hopf algebra. It is called {\it regular} if its antipode is a bijective map from $A$ to itself. \snl In this paper, we {\it continue the study of weak multiplier Hopf algebras}. We recall the notions of the source and target maps $\varepsilon_s$ and $\varepsilon_t$, as well as of the source and target algebras. Then we investigate these objects further. Among other things, we show that the canonical idempotent $E$ (which is eventually $\Delta(1)$) belongs to the multiplier algebra $M(B\ot C)$ where $B=\varepsilon_s(A)$ and $C=\varepsilon_t(A)$ and that it is a {\it separability idempotent} (as studied in [VD4.v2]). If the weak multiplier Hopf algebra is regular, then also $E$ is a {\it regular} separability idempotent. \snl We also consider {\it special cases and examples} in this paper. In particular, we see how for any weak multiplier Hopf algebra $(A,\Delta)$, it is possible to make $C\ot B$ (with $B$ and $C$ as above) into a new weak multiplier Hopf algebra. In a sense, it forgets the 'Hopf algebra part' of the original weak multiplier Hopf algebra and only remembers the source and target algebras. It is in turn generalized to the case of any pair of non-degenerate algebras $B$ and $C$ with a separability idempotent $E\in M(B\ot C)$. We get another example using this theory associated to any discrete quantum group (a multiplier Hopf algebra of discrete type with a normalized cointegral). Finally we also consider the well-known 'quantization' of the groupoid that comes from an action of a group on a set. All these constructions provide interesting new examples of weak multiplier Hopf algebras (that are not weak Hopf algebras).

Subject Areas

groupoid; weak Hopf algebra; multiplier algebra

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