Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Mechanism of Action of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Mood Disorders

Version 1 : Received: 2 November 2020 / Approved: 3 November 2020 / Online: 3 November 2020 (08:57:54 CET)

How to cite: Grinchii, D.; Dremencov, E. Mechanism of Action of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Mood Disorders. Preprints 2020, 2020110143 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202011.0143.v1). Grinchii, D.; Dremencov, E. Mechanism of Action of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Mood Disorders. Preprints 2020, 2020110143 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202011.0143.v1).

Abstract

Atypical antipsychotic drugs were introduced in the early 1990th. Unlike typical antipsychotics, which are effective only against positive symptoms of schizophrenia, atypical antipsychotics show effectiveness against negative and cognitive symptoms as well. Furthermore, they are effective not only in psychotic, but also in affective disorders, by their own or as adjuncts to antidepressant drugs. While typical antipsychotics act, almost exclusively, via dopamine-2 (D2) receptors, atypical target serotonin-1A/1B/2A/2C (5-HT1A/1B/2A/2C), α1/2-adrenergic, and/or histamine-1 (H1) receptors as well. Blocking of 5-HT1A/1B autoreceptors, inducing their early desensitization, and/or activation of α1-adrenoceptors, allow some atypical drugs to enhance 5-HT transmission. Blocking of 5-HT2A/2C and/or α2-adrenoceptors enable some atypical antipsychotics to stimulate catecholamine transmission and/or diminish the inhibition of catecholamine neurons induced by some antidepressants. It is possible, that the activation of H1 and/or blocking of H3 boost monoamine transmission as well, via a mechanism involving stimulation of firing activity of dopamine neurons. The experimental drugs with antipsychotic potential, acting on adenosine and trace amino associated (TAAR) receptors, might be effective in mood disorders as well, because of the ability to modulate the excitability of monoamine-secreting neurons and to potentiate extracellular concentrations of monoamines in the limbic areas of the brain.

Subject Areas

serotonin; norepinephrine; dopamine; histamine; adenosine, trace amines

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