Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Geology, Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Gold Mineralization Hosting Syenite, Tulu Kapi, Western Ethiopia: A Review

Version 1 : Received: 24 September 2020 / Approved: 25 September 2020 / Online: 25 September 2020 (08:28:22 CEST)

How to cite: Oljira, T.; Warkisa, G. Geology, Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Gold Mineralization Hosting Syenite, Tulu Kapi, Western Ethiopia: A Review. Preprints 2020, 2020090598 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202009.0598.v1). Oljira, T.; Warkisa, G. Geology, Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Gold Mineralization Hosting Syenite, Tulu Kapi, Western Ethiopia: A Review. Preprints 2020, 2020090598 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202009.0598.v1).

Abstract

The Neoproterozoic (900-600 Ma) Arabian Nubian Shield is an example of Precambrian plate tectonics and arc accretion. The Western Ethiopian Shield (the southern extension of ANS) is geo-tectonically a characteristic of lower grades of Metavolcano-sedimentary sequences of ANS intruded by associated felsic granitoid and mafic bodies and at the same time it is contained of gneisses rocks of the MB. The Gold mineralization and alterations initiating throughout the Tulu Kapi syenite are in the form of in enechelon vein arrays and related structures, which are controlled by conjugate shear zones in the syenite and steep N-S striking structures. The earliest recorded deformation and alterations revealed the syenite albitization which is the one hosting for gold mineralization and it has been widely overprinted by multistage hydrothermal system that appears to have been controlled mainly by veins, crackle zones, fractures and minor breccia zones. Primary gold mineralization displays spatial and temporal relationship with Tulu Kapi syenite and the Kapi gabbro, both of which host gold mineralization, are 738.3±2.6 Ma and 699.5±2.7 Ma period, respectively, in a volcanic arc subduction syn-collisional tectonic setting by the fractionation of underplated, LREE-enriched basaltic magma with substantial crustal input to possible crustal melting. The underplated basaltic magma had been sourced from LREE-enriched mantle by subduction of sediment laden crustal slabs at a subduction zone. Fractional crystallization involved formation of Ca-rich plagioclase, which continually reacted with hydrothermal fluids to more fractionated Na-rich plagioclase, forming the gold mineralization hosting altered (albitized) syenites. The Pan-African orogeny, and associated regional metamorphism and magmatism, generated large-scale movements of gold and base metal-bearing fluids in the crust, channelized along complex fractures into regional NE-SW foliation in Ethiopia (e.g., western Ethiopia). However, these gold-rich alkalic magmas are so modified by crustal processes that evidence of their genetic relationship with gold become obscured. The primary ore mineral assemblage of quartz veins and veinlets, and associated mineralised syenite within Tulu Kapi area consists of pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, hematite, and gold. The major and trace element composition of ore- forming fluids from the mineralised vein, barren and granitic intrusion is still largely unknown, yet could provide important and more direct evidence for the fluid source(s). This is vital in establishing a direct genetic link between syenite and other granitoid intrusion, and gold mineralization.

Subject Areas

Geology; Geochemistry; Geochronology; Gold mineralization; Syenite; Tulu Kapi

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