Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Similarity in Symmetry Groups of Ornaments as a Measure for Cultural Interactions in Medieval Times

Version 1 : Received: 31 July 2020 / Approved: 2 August 2020 / Online: 2 August 2020 (13:01:04 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 12 September 2020 / Approved: 14 September 2020 / Online: 14 September 2020 (05:42:34 CEST)

How to cite: Erbudak, M.; Onat, S. Similarity in Symmetry Groups of Ornaments as a Measure for Cultural Interactions in Medieval Times. Preprints 2020, 2020080031 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202008.0031.v2). Erbudak, M.; Onat, S. Similarity in Symmetry Groups of Ornaments as a Measure for Cultural Interactions in Medieval Times. Preprints 2020, 2020080031 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202008.0031.v2).

Abstract

The symmetry properties of an ornament contain information about its civilisation and its interactions with other cultural sources. Two-dimensional periodic ornaments can be strictly classified into a limited set of 17 mathematical symmetry groups, also known as wallpaper groups. The collection of ornaments thus classified for a civilisation is characteristic of the cultural group and serves as a fingerprint to identify that group. If the distribution of wallpaper groups is available for several societies, mathematical methods can be applied to determine similarities and differences between the art practices of these communities. This method allows a systematic approach to the general ornamental practices within a culture and their interactions in the form of similarity of fingerprints. We test the feasibility of the method on examples of medieval Armenians, Byzantium, Seljuks first in Persia and then in Anatolia and among Arabs in the Middle East. For this purpose we present the distribution of the planar ornaments and calculate the Euclidean distances in pairs. We tested to what extend geographical and religious factors could account for the observed similarity of ornamental groups between cultures. The results suggest an intensive interaction between the Seljuk Turks and Arab craftsmen who produced the ornaments. Therefore the cultural interactions are religiously motivated.

Subject Areas

wallpaper groups; planar ornaments; correlation; multi-dimensional scaling; Arabs; Armenian; Byzantium; Islam; Seljuks; cultural interaction

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 14 September 2020
Commenter: Mehmet Erbudak
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Data analysis is improved. Figures 7 - 9 are replaced. Some inconsistencies have been corrected. A new reference is added.
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