Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Trace Element, Immune and Opioid Biomarkers of Unstable Angina, Increased Atherogenicity and Insulin Resistance: Results of Machine Learning

Version 1 : Received: 11 July 2020 / Approved: 12 July 2020 / Online: 12 July 2020 (15:11:16 CEST)

How to cite: Qazmooz, H.A.; Smeism, H.N.; Mousa, R.F.; Al-Hakeim, H.K.; Maes, M. Trace Element, Immune and Opioid Biomarkers of Unstable Angina, Increased Atherogenicity and Insulin Resistance: Results of Machine Learning. Preprints 2020, 2020070260 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0260.v1). Qazmooz, H.A.; Smeism, H.N.; Mousa, R.F.; Al-Hakeim, H.K.; Maes, M. Trace Element, Immune and Opioid Biomarkers of Unstable Angina, Increased Atherogenicity and Insulin Resistance: Results of Machine Learning. Preprints 2020, 2020070260 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0260.v1).

Abstract

Background: Aberrations in endothelial cells, immune and oxidative pathways are associated with atherosclerosis (ATS) and unstable angina (UA). The role of trace elements, minerals, and the endogenous opioid system (EOS) in UA are less well established. Methods: We measured lipid, insulin resistance (IR), and immune, trace element (copper and zinc), mineral (magnesium, calcium), EOS (β-endorphin and mu-opioid receptor (MOR)) and antioxidant (vitamin D3) biomarkers in patients with ATS (n=60) and UA (n=60) and healthy controls (n=58). Results: ATS patients showed increased atherogenic and IR indices, IL-6, IL-10, β-endorphin, copper and magnesium, and lower zinc than healthy controls. Logistic regression showed that UA was significantly discriminated from ATS without UA with an accuracy of 85.5% using calcium, IL-10, β-endorphin, MOR, triglycerides, IR (all positively), and copper and vitamin D3 (inversely). Neural networks showed that UA was discriminated from ATS without UA with an area under the ROC curve of 0.942 using MOR, β-endorphin, calcium, insulin resistance, vitamin D3 and copper as input variables. We found that 50.0% of the variance in IR was explained by the regression on copper, IL-10, IL-6 (all positively), and zinc (inversely), while 32.9% of the variance in the atherogenic index of plasma was explained by copper, IL-10 (both positively), and magnesium (inversely). Conclusion: UA is not only mediated by insulin resistance, atherogenicity, and immune disorders, but also by aberrations in the endogenous opioid system and trace elements as well as lowered antioxidant levels. Copper appears to play a key role in IR and atherogenicity.

Subject Areas

unstable angina; atherogenicity; inflammation; antioxidants; oxidative stress; biomarkers

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.