Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

COVID-19: The Rollercoaster of Fibrin(ogen), D-dimer, von Willebrand Factor, P-selectin and Their Interactions with Endothelial Cells, Platelets and Erythrocytes

Version 1 : Received: 5 July 2020 / Approved: 8 July 2020 / Online: 8 July 2020 (10:44:08 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Grobler, C.; Maphumulo, S.C.; Grobbelaar, L.M.; Bredenkamp, J.C.; Laubscher, G.J.; Lourens, P.J.; Steenkamp, J.; Kell, D.B.; Pretorius, E. Covid-19: The Rollercoaster of Fibrin(Ogen), D-Dimer, Von Willebrand Factor, P-Selectin and Their Interactions with Endothelial Cells, Platelets and Erythrocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5168. Grobler, C.; Maphumulo, S.C.; Grobbelaar, L.M.; Bredenkamp, J.C.; Laubscher, G.J.; Lourens, P.J.; Steenkamp, J.; Kell, D.B.; Pretorius, E. Covid-19: The Rollercoaster of Fibrin(Ogen), D-Dimer, Von Willebrand Factor, P-Selectin and Their Interactions with Endothelial Cells, Platelets and Erythrocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5168.

Journal reference: Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5168
DOI: 10.3390/ijms21145168

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced infection is strongly associated with various coagulopathies that may result in either bleeding and thrombocytopenia or hypercoagulation and thrombosis. Thrombotic and bleeding or thrombotic pathologies are significant accompaniments to acute respiratory syndrome and lung complications in COVID-19. Thrombotic events and bleeding, often occurs in subjects with weak multiple risk factors and co-morbidities. Of particular interest are the various circulating inflammatory coagulation biomarkers involved directly in clotting, with specific focus on fibrin(ogen), D-dimer, P-selectin and von Willebrand Factor (vWF). Central to activity of these biomarkers are their receptors and signaling pathways on endothelial cells, platelets and erythrocytes. In this review, we discuss vascular implications of COVID-19, and relate this to circulating biomarker, endothelial, erythrocyte and platelet dysfunction. During the progression of the disease, these markers may either be within healthy levels, upregulated or eventually depleted. Most significant is that patients need to be treated early in the disease progression, when high levels of vWF, P-selectin and fibrinogen are present with still low levels of D-dimer. Progression to vWF and fibrinogen depletion with high D-dimer levels and even higher P-selectin levels, followed by the cytokine storm, will be indicative of a poor prognosis. We conclude by looking at point-of-care devises and methodologies in COVID-19 management and suggest that a personalized medicine approach should be considered in the treatment of patients.

Subject Areas

COVID-19; fibrin(ogen); D-dimer; von Willebrand Factor; P-selectin; bleeding; thrombocytopenia; thrombosis

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.