Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Caused by the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): A Practical Comprehensive Literature Review

Version 1 : Received: 4 June 2020 / Approved: 5 June 2020 / Online: 5 June 2020 (13:54:36 CEST)

How to cite: Montenegro, F.; Unigarro, L.; Paredes, G.; Moya, T.; Romero, A.; Torres, L.; López, J.C.; Jara González, F.E.; Del Pozo, G.; López-Cortés, A.; Diaz, A.M.; vasconez, J.E.; Cevallos-Robalino, D.; Lister, A.; Ortiz-Prado, E. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Caused by the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): A Practical Comprehensive Literature Review. Preprints 2020, 2020060045 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202006.0045.v1). Montenegro, F.; Unigarro, L.; Paredes, G.; Moya, T.; Romero, A.; Torres, L.; López, J.C.; Jara González, F.E.; Del Pozo, G.; López-Cortés, A.; Diaz, A.M.; vasconez, J.E.; Cevallos-Robalino, D.; Lister, A.; Ortiz-Prado, E. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Caused by the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): A Practical Comprehensive Literature Review. Preprints 2020, 2020060045 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202006.0045.v1).

Abstract

Introduction: The exponential growth of the SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission during the first months of 2020 has placed substantial pressure on health systems worldwide. The complications derived from the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vary in due to comorbidities, sex and age, with more than 50% of the patients who require some level of intensive care developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Areas covered: Various complications caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified, the most lethal being the acute respiratory distress syndrome, caused most likely by the presence of severe immune cell response and the concomitant alveolus inflammation. The authors carried out an extensive and comprehensive literature review on SARS-CoV-2 infection, the clinical, pathological and radiological presentation as well as the current treatment strategies. Expert Opinion Elevation of inflammatory biomarkers is a common trend among seriously ill patients. The information available strongly suggests that in COVID-19 patients, their altered immune response, including a massive cytokine storm, is responsible for the further damage evidenced among ARDS patients. The increasingly high number of scientific articles and evidence available can only suggest that the individualization of each case is the norm, not all patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 meet the Berlin definition and therefore ARDS should be considered as a heterogeneous disease, with a wide range in the expression of its severity and clinical manifestations.

Subject Areas

ARDS; COVID-19; Berlin Criteria; Respiratory Failure

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