Preprint Hypothesis Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to mitigate immune dysregulation and coagulopathy in COVID-19

Version 1 : Received: 7 May 2020 / Approved: 8 May 2020 / Online: 8 May 2020 (12:36:03 CEST)

How to cite: Desbarats, J. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to mitigate immune dysregulation and coagulopathy in COVID-19. Preprints 2020, 2020050144 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202005.0144.v1). Desbarats, J. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to mitigate immune dysregulation and coagulopathy in COVID-19. Preprints 2020, 2020050144 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202005.0144.v1).

Abstract

Although most cases of COVID-19 are paucisymptomatic, severe disease is characterized by immune dysregulation, with a decreased type I interferon response, increased inflammatory indicators, surging IL-6, IL-10 and TNFα suggestive of cytokine storm, progressive lymphopenia, and abnormal blood clotting. Factors determining susceptibility to severe disease are poorly understood, although mortality correlates with increasing age and co-morbidities including diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) tends to be insufficient in populations particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, including the elderly, the institutionalized, and people with diabetes and CVD, and PLP becomes further depleted during infection and inflammation. In turn, low PLP results in immune imbalance, as PLP is an essential cofactor in pathways regulating cytokine production, in particular type I interferons and IL-6, and in lymphocyte trafficking and endothelial integrity. Furthermore, normalizing PLP levels attenuates abnormalities in platelet aggregation and clot formation. Finally, PLP insufficiency induces excess secretion of renin and angiotensin, and hypertension. In inflammatory disease, pharmacological doses of PLP decrease circulating TNFα, IL-6 and D-dimer, and animal studies demonstrate that supplemental PLP shortens the duration and severity of viral pneumonia. Severe COVID-19 manifests as an imbalance in the immune response and the clotting system. Pharmacological PLP supplementation may therefore mitigate COVID-19 symptoms by alleviating both the immune suppression underlying viral spread and the pathological hypersecretion of inflammatory cytokines, as well as directly bolstering endothelial integrity and preventing hypercoagulability.

Subject Areas

COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyridoxine, vitamin B6, immune response, IL-6, TNF, type I interferon, lymphopenia, blood clotting, coagulopathy, cytokine storm, sphingosine-1-phosphate, kynurenine, inflammasome, serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2), hypertension, angiotensin

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