Working Paper Case Report Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Asymmetric Bone Marrow Involvement in Patients with Acute Leukemia After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell TransplantationTwo Case Reports and Literature Review

Version 1 : Received: 5 May 2020 / Approved: 7 May 2020 / Online: 7 May 2020 (10:53:42 CEST)

How to cite: Shi, W.; Xia, X.; Wu, Y.; Yao, J.; Chen, W.; Lu, X.; Tang, L.; Xia, L.; You, Y.; Hu, Y. Asymmetric Bone Marrow Involvement in Patients with Acute Leukemia After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell TransplantationTwo Case Reports and Literature Review. Preprints 2020, 2020050121 Shi, W.; Xia, X.; Wu, Y.; Yao, J.; Chen, W.; Lu, X.; Tang, L.; Xia, L.; You, Y.; Hu, Y. Asymmetric Bone Marrow Involvement in Patients with Acute Leukemia After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation:Two Case Reports and Literature Review. Preprints 2020, 2020050121

Abstract

Background: After allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), acute leukemia relapse is common, and asymmetric bone marrow recurrence hasn’t been reported. Because the anatomical distribution of acute leukemia clones in the bone marrow after allo-HSCT is presumed to be diffuse, bone marrow aspirations are performed in single site. Case presentation: We identified two acute leukemia patients, whose leukemic burden in bilateral bone marrow specimens differed significantly. The first case was a 20-year-old man who was diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia and received haploidentical allo-HSCT. He had been in complete remission for two years and off immunosuppressive medications for a year, with normal peripheral blood count. Routine bone marrow biopsy of his left posterior iliac bone marrow showed 52% leukemia blasts, while the right side had 0% blasts ten days later. Due to the discordant results, the patient refused further intervention and died of high leukocyte syndrome four months later. The second case was a 23-year-old woman who was diagnosed with acute B lymphoblastic leukemia and received HLA-identical sibling allo-HSCT. Although 62% of blasts were found in her left iliac marrow on day +122, 0 % of blasts were found on a sample obtained from the right iliac crest on day +128. Whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scans confirmed that the leukemic infiltration in her bone marrow was asymmetric. Considering the higher leukemic burden on the left, we chose the left posterior iliac crest aspiration for further response evaluation. After chemotherapy combined with donor lymphocyte infusion, she achieved transient hematologic complete remission. She died of septic shock with heart failure at +258 days after allo-HSCT before infusion of anti-CD19 donor chimeric antigen receptor T cells. Conclusions: To our knowledge, these are the first case reports of asymmetric bone marrow infiltration of blasts in acute leukemia patients after allo-HSCT. Bilateral posterior iliac crest aspirations or 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans may help distinguish such distribution. If discordant bone marrow specimens are observed, physicians should restrict future bone marrow studies to the more involved side.

Subject Areas

asymmetric; blasts;acute leukemia; allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; case report

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