Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Lowered Serum Cesium Levels in Schizophrenia: Association with Immune-Inflammatory Biomarkers and Cognitive Impairments

Version 1 : Received: 13 February 2020 / Approved: 14 February 2020 / Online: 14 February 2020 (01:53:53 CET)

How to cite: Almulla, A.F.; Moustafa, S.R.; Al-Dujaili, A.H.; Al-Hakeim, H.K.; Maes, M. Lowered Serum Cesium Levels in Schizophrenia: Association with Immune-Inflammatory Biomarkers and Cognitive Impairments. Preprints 2020, 2020020175 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202002.0175.v1). Almulla, A.F.; Moustafa, S.R.; Al-Dujaili, A.H.; Al-Hakeim, H.K.; Maes, M. Lowered Serum Cesium Levels in Schizophrenia: Association with Immune-Inflammatory Biomarkers and Cognitive Impairments. Preprints 2020, 2020020175 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202002.0175.v1).

Abstract

Objective: A previous study showed that schizophrenia is accompanied by lowered levels of trace/metal elements including cesium. There are no data whether changes in cesium, rubidium and rhenium are associated with activated immune-inflammatory pathways, cognitive impairments, and the symptomatology of schizophrenia. Methods: This study measured cesium, rubidium, and rhenium, cognitive impairments (using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) and the cytokines/chemokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and CCL11 (eotaxin) in 120 schizophrenia patients and 54 healthy controls. Severity of illness was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Rating (FF) Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Results: Serum cesium was significantly lower in schizophrenia patients as compared with controls. Serum cesium was significantly and inversely associated with CCL11 and TNF-α, but not IL-1β. Moreover, there were significant inverse associations between serum cesium levels and the BPRS, FF, HAM-D and SANS scores and positive correlations between cesium and neurocognitive probe results including the Tower of London, Symbol Coding, Controlled Word Association, Category Instances, Digit Sequencing Task, and List Learning tests. Conclusion: The results suggest that lowered serum cesium levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of SCZ, specific symptom domains including negative, depressive and fatigue symptoms, neurocognitive impairments (spatial working, episodic and semantic memory and executive functions) and neuro-immune pathways as well.

Subject Areas

inflammation; neuroimmunomodulation; major depression; chronic fatigue syndrome; myalgic encephalomyelitis; biomarkers

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