Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Genetic Code, Algebraic Codes and Double Numbers

Version 1 : Received: 24 November 2019 / Approved: 24 November 2019 / Online: 24 November 2019 (17:20:40 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 16 March 2020 / Approved: 17 March 2020 / Online: 17 March 2020 (03:02:27 CET)

How to cite: Petoukhov, S.V. The Genetic Code, Algebraic Codes and Double Numbers. Preprints 2019, 2019110301. Petoukhov, S.V. The Genetic Code, Algebraic Codes and Double Numbers. Preprints 2019, 2019110301.


The article shows materials to the question about algebraic features of the genetic code and about the dictatorial influence of the DNA and RNA molecules on the whole organism. Presented results testify in favor that the genetic code is an algebraic code related with a wide class of algebraic codes, which are a basis of noise-immune coding of information in communication technologies. Structural features of the genetic systems are associated with hypercomplex double (or hyperbolic) numbers and with bisymmetric doubly stochastic matrices. The received results confirm that represented matrix approaches are effective for modeling genetic phenomena and revealing the interconnections of structures of biological bodies at various levels of their organization. This allows one to think that living organisms are algebraically encoded entities where structures of genetic molecules have the dictatorial influence on inherited structures of the whole organism. New described algebraic approaches and results are discussed.


genetic code; DNA; alphabet; amino acids; hypercomplex numbers; doubly stochastic matrix; binary numbers; dyadic groups; tensor product; palindrome


Biology and Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 17 March 2020
Commenter: Sergey Petoukhov
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: New sections, materials, figures, and references were added in the extended second version of this article.
+ Respond to this comment

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
* All users must log in before leaving a comment
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 1
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.