Preprint Case Report Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Spontaneous Left Cardiac Isomerism in Chick Embryos: Case Report, Review of the Literature, and Possible Significance for the Understanding of Ventricular Non-Compaction Cardiomyopathy in the Setting of Human Heterotaxy Syndromes

Version 1 : Received: 7 October 2019 / Approved: 10 October 2019 / Online: 10 October 2019 (05:54:08 CEST)

How to cite: Männer, J. Spontaneous Left Cardiac Isomerism in Chick Embryos: Case Report, Review of the Literature, and Possible Significance for the Understanding of Ventricular Non-Compaction Cardiomyopathy in the Setting of Human Heterotaxy Syndromes. Preprints 2019, 2019100112 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201910.0112.v1). Männer, J. Spontaneous Left Cardiac Isomerism in Chick Embryos: Case Report, Review of the Literature, and Possible Significance for the Understanding of Ventricular Non-Compaction Cardiomyopathy in the Setting of Human Heterotaxy Syndromes. Preprints 2019, 2019100112 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201910.0112.v1).

Abstract

Except for a few species, the outer shape of vertebrates normally is characterized by bilateral symmetry. The inner organs, on the other hand, normally are arranged in bilaterally asymmetric patterns, which are of special importance for the normal function of the cardiovascular system of lung-breathing vertebrates. Deviations from the normal organ asymmetry can occur in the form of mirror imagery of the normal arrangement (situs inversus), or in the form of arrangements that have the tendency for development of bilateral symmetry, either in a pattern of bilateral left-sideness (left isomerism) or bilateral right-sidedness (right isomerism). The latter two forms of visceral situs anomalies are called “heterotaxy syndromes”. During the past 30 years, remarkable progress has been made in uncovering of the genetic etiology of heterotaxy syndromes. However, the pathogenetic mechanisms causing the spectrum of cardiovascular defects found in these syndromes remain poorly understood. In the present report, a spontaneous case of left cardiac isomerism found in a HH-stage 23 chick embryo is described. The observations made in this case suggest that hearts with left cardiac isomerism may have the tendency for development of a non-compaction cardiomyopathy caused by defective development of the proepicardium.

Subject Areas

heterotaxy syndromes; cardiac isomerism; chick embryo; Pitx2; proepicardium; non-compaction cardiomyopathy

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