Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Preprint: Crowdsourcing and Analysing Wildlife Tourism Data from Photographs Shared on Social Media

Version 1 : Received: 20 August 2019 / Approved: 21 August 2019 / Online: 21 August 2019 (10:34:58 CEST)

How to cite: Walker, O.; Simpson, G.D.; Teo, A.C.K.; Newsome, D. Preprint: Crowdsourcing and Analysing Wildlife Tourism Data from Photographs Shared on Social Media. Preprints 2019, 2019080226 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201908.0226.v1). Walker, O.; Simpson, G.D.; Teo, A.C.K.; Newsome, D. Preprint: Crowdsourcing and Analysing Wildlife Tourism Data from Photographs Shared on Social Media. Preprints 2019, 2019080226 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201908.0226.v1).

Abstract

The first two decades of the 21st-century have seen the emergence of the modern citizen science movement, increased demand for niche eco and wildlife tourism experiences, and the willingness of people to voluntarily share information and photographs online. To varying extents, the rapid growth of these three phenomena has been driven by the availability of portable smart devices, access to the Web 2.0 internet from almost anywhere on the planet, and the development of applications and services, including social media/networking sites (SNSs). In addition, the number of peer-reviewed publications that explore how text and images shared on SNSs can be data-mined for academic research has surged in recent years. This systematic quantitative review has two goals. The first goal is to provide an oversight of how the photographs that ecotourists share online are contributing to wildlife tourism research. The second goal is to promote the emerging photovoice technique as a theoretical context for social research based on the photographs and comments that ecotourists share on SNSs. From the perspectives of community benefits, conservation behaviours, and environmental education, there are many similarities between authentic ecotourism experiences and quality ecological citizen science programs. Much of the literature regarding the theory and practice of citizen science reports on the difficulties of attracting, training, motivating and retaining community members. The synthesis of this review is that crowdsourcing wildlife and tourism data from comments and photographs that ecotourists share on SNSs is a credible method of research that provides a self-replenishing pool of citizen scientists.

Subject Areas

crowdsourcing; citizen science; ecotourism; Facebook; Flickr; photo-elicitation; Instagram; photovoice; social media; social networking sites; Twitter; wildlife conservation

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 25 August 2019
Commenter: Greg D Simpson
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Communicating Coauthor
Comment: We unsuccessfully submitted this manuscript to a journal on the 1 Aug 2018. After waiting many months, we received a dubious split decisions review. Only recently have we again found a window of opportunity to revise the manuscript. The supporting dataset is shared through our Preprint Data Descriptor https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints201908.0232.v1
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