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Phenomenological Model Coupling Stress Transfer with Photon Diffusion for Interpreting the Kinetics of Delayed Ultraweak Photon Emission from Organism in Response to a Bolus or Step Stress
: Received: 7 July 2019 / Approved: 8 July 2019 / Online: 8 July 2019 (06:08:03 CEST)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: SN Applied Sciences 2020, 2, 1556
Much remains to be understood for delayed ultraweak photon emission (UPE) from organism in association with oxidative burst following external perturbation, a phenomenon that has been experimented for over three decades. Delayed UPE often decays hyperbolically; yet, it is not uncommon to have delayed UPE that reveals first-order kinetic patterns characterized by single-exponential, double exponential, or multi-exponential changes. Some delayed UPEs also presented transient patterns that are characteristic of second-order responses. A soliton-based photon-storage model has addressed the hyperbolic decaying pattern of delayed UPE; however, there are questions outstanding regarding modeling other non-hyperbolic kinetics as well as the large range of temporal scales of delayed UPE that can vary from 8.5 microseconds to many hours. This work proposes an alternative, phenomenological model-framework for interpreting the various kinetic patterns of delayed UPE following stress. The delayed UPE is considered to be governed by two sequential phases: a stress-transfer phase that transforms the external stress to photo-genesis for emitting photons, and a photon-diffusion phase that transmits the photons emitted by the photo-genesis to the surface of organism for being detected as delayed UPE. Time-resolved photon diffusion analysis reveals that any delayed UPE in organism with a delay time >100ns cannot be addressed by the inherent temporal spread that realistic tissue scattering will cause. A slow stress-transfer phase is thus required to explain the delay time-scales of delayed UPE at a minimum of 8.5 µs as reported experimentally. The stress-transfer phase is hypothesized to carry the following types of responses: single or multiple 1st-order low-pass, single 2nd-order low-pass with various damping factors, and single 2nd-order band-pass with various damping factors. A single 1st–order low-pass response with a time-varying kinetic rate is also analyzed. The responses of these modeled pathways to bolus and step inputs demonstrate that a kinetic pattern other than the exact single-exponential one may have multiple causes.
Supplementary and Associated Material
delayed ultraweak photon emission; light propagation in tissues; stress transfer
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