Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Fair Exchange and Anonymous E-Commerce by Deploying Clone-Resistant Tokens

Version 1 : Received: 18 June 2019 / Approved: 19 June 2019 / Online: 19 June 2019 (12:39:11 CEST)

How to cite: Mars, A.; Adi, W. Fair Exchange and Anonymous E-Commerce by Deploying Clone-Resistant Tokens. Preprints 2019, 2019060185. Mars, A.; Adi, W. Fair Exchange and Anonymous E-Commerce by Deploying Clone-Resistant Tokens. Preprints 2019, 2019060185.


The majority of E-commerce transactions reveal private information such as customers' identities, order contents, and payment information during the transaction. Other personal information such as health conditions, religion, and even ethnicity may be also deduced. Even when deploying electronic cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, anonymity cannot be fully guaranteed. Also, many anonymous payment schemes suffer from possible double spending circumstances. E-commerce privacy is basically a difficult problem as it involves parties with concurring interests. Three major e-commerce requirements are highly difficult to resolve: anonymous purchase, anonymous delivery, and anonymous payment. This work presents a possible e-commerce system addressing all three anonymity requirements for electronic-items business on open networks. The system offers anonymous entities authentication mechanisms up to completing a fair anonymous e-commerce transaction. The system is based on deploying a physically clone-resistant hardware token for each relevant involved party. The tokens are made clone-resistant by accommodating a Secret Unknown Cipher (SUC) in each hardware-token as a digital PUF-like identity. A set of novel generic system-setups for units, protocols and e-commerce schemes is introduced. The proposed anonymization is basically attained by virtually-replacing relevant e-commerce entities by low-cost, unique and clone-resistant tokens/units using SUCs. The units act as trustable anonymous, authenticated and non-replaceable entities monitored by their acting users.


anonymous e-commerce; e-payment; fair exchange; anonymity; hardware tokens; secret unknown cipher; physical unclonable functions


Computer Science and Mathematics, Information Systems

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
* All users must log in before leaving a comment
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.