Preprint Article Version 3 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Optimal Covert Communication Technology

Version 1 : Received: 26 February 2019 / Approved: 27 February 2019 / Online: 27 February 2019 (11:47:18 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 18 March 2019 / Approved: 20 March 2019 / Online: 20 March 2019 (15:43:30 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 28 January 2022 / Approved: 31 January 2022 / Online: 31 January 2022 (12:57:32 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Okello, M. O. (2022). Optimal Covert Communication Techniques . International Journal of Informatics and Applied Mathematics , 5 (1) , 1-26 . DOI: 10.53508/ijiam.1073205 Okello, M. O. (2022). Optimal Covert Communication Techniques . International Journal of Informatics and Applied Mathematics , 5 (1) , 1-26 . DOI: 10.53508/ijiam.1073205


Due to advancement in hacking/reverse engineering tools, threat against transfer of sensitive data or highly classified information is always at risk of being intercepted by an attacker. Covert communication outwit this malicious breach of privacy act better than cryptography as it camouflage secret information inside another innocent looking information, while cryptography shows scrambled information that might arouse attention of an attacker. However, the challenges in Steganography are the modification of carrier that causes some abnormalities, which is detectable and often the methods are not optimize. This paper presents an approach in Covert communication Chanel, which utilizes mathematical concept of combination to optimize time of transmission using sets of multiple transmitter’s, and receiver’s addresses where each abstractly represents a set of bits or characters combination without modifying the address. To minimize the number of physical address to be use, a combinatorial and permutation concept of virtual address generation from physical address is introduce. The paper in addition presents some technique like relationship and their application in both re-enforcing resistivity against Steganalysis and generating combinations. Furthermore, a concept of dynamical clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation of combination over addresses after every transmission is introduce to further improve on resistivity against Steganalysis. A simple test was performed for demonstrating relay address, combination and permutation concepts. Based on test results and analysis, the method is effective as expected and it is quite easy to use as it can be implemented in different platform without much difficulties.


Steganography; Cryptography; Algorithm; Combinatorial; Permutation


Computer Science and Mathematics, Computer Science

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 31 January 2022
Commenter: Moses Oyaro Okello
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: The following are some addition and modification 

Title modified

Generation of virtual address based on permutation concept.

Relay address concept also added.

Sample test of concept presented too. 

Some algorithm  shown. 
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