Preprint Article Version 3 This version is not peer-reviewed

Protein-Encoding RNA-to-RNA Information Transfer in Mammalian Cells: Principles of RNA-Dependent mRNA Amplification

Version 1 : Received: 17 February 2019 / Approved: 19 February 2019 / Online: 19 February 2019 (10:39:43 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 27 February 2019 / Approved: 27 February 2019 / Online: 27 February 2019 (08:40:04 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 26 March 2019 / Approved: 26 March 2019 / Online: 26 March 2019 (14:46:54 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 12 June 2019 / Approved: 12 June 2019 / Online: 12 June 2019 (12:21:59 CEST)

How to cite: Volloch, V. Protein-Encoding RNA-to-RNA Information Transfer in Mammalian Cells: Principles of RNA-Dependent mRNA Amplification. Preprints 2019, 2019020172 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201902.0172.v3). Volloch, V. Protein-Encoding RNA-to-RNA Information Transfer in Mammalian Cells: Principles of RNA-Dependent mRNA Amplification. Preprints 2019, 2019020172 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201902.0172.v3).

Abstract

The transfer of protein-encoding genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein, a process formalized as the “Central Dogma of Molecular Biology”, has undergone a significant evolution since its inception. It was amended to account for the information flow from RNA to DNA, the reverse transcription, and for the information transfer from RNA to RNA, the RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. These processes, both potentially leading to protein production, were initially described only in viral systems, and although RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity was shown to be present, and RNA-dependent RNA synthesisfound to occur, in mammalian cells, its function was presumed to be restricted to regulatory. However, recent results, obtained with multiple mRNA species in several mammalian systems, strongly indicate the occurrence of protein-encoding RNA to RNA information transfer in mammalian cells. It can result in the rapid production of the extraordinary quantities of specific proteins as was seen in cases of terminal cellular differentiation and during cellular deposition of extracellular matrix molecules. A malfunction of this process may be involved in pathologies associated either with the deficiency of a protein normally produced by this mechanism or with the abnormal abundanceof a protein or of its C-terminal fragment. It seems to be responsible for some types of familial thalassemia and may underlie the overproduction of beta amyloid in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the present article is to systematize the current knowledge and understanding of this pathway. The outlined framework introduces unexpected features of the mRNA amplification such as its ability to generate polypeptides non-contiguously encoded in the genome, its second Tier, a physiologically occurring intracellular PCR, iPCR, a Two-Tier Paradox and RNA Dark Matter. RNA-dependent mRNA amplification represents a new mode of genomic protein-encoding information transfer in mammalian cells. Its potential physiological impact is substantial, it appears relevant to multiple pathologies and its understanding opens new venues of therapeutic interference, it suggests powerful novel bioengineering approaches and its further rigorous investigations are highly warranted.

Subject Areas

RNA-dependent amplification of mammalian mRNA; physiologically occurring intracellular PCR, iPCR; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp; chimeric RNA; sense-strand RNA; antisense-strand RNA

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