Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Nikfar Domination in Fuzzy Graphs

Version 1 : Received: 31 December 2018 / Approved: 3 January 2019 / Online: 3 January 2019 (13:43:25 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 28 April 2019 / Approved: 7 May 2019 / Online: 7 May 2019 (10:14:31 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 13 May 2019 / Approved: 14 May 2019 / Online: 14 May 2019 (09:50:12 CEST)

How to cite: Nikfar, M. Nikfar Domination in Fuzzy Graphs. Preprints 2019, 2019010024. Nikfar, M. Nikfar Domination in Fuzzy Graphs. Preprints 2019, 2019010024.


The aim of this expository article is to present recent developments in the centuries-old discussion on the interrelations between several types of domination in graphs. However, the novelty even more prominent in the newly discovered simplified presentations of several older results. The main part of this article, concerning a new domination and older one, is presented in a narrative that answers two classical questions: (i) To what extend must closing set be dominating? (ii) How strong is the assumption of domination of a closing set? In a addition, we give an overview of the results concerning domination. The problem asks how small can a subset of vertices be and contain no edges or, more generally how can small a subset of vertices be and contain other ones. Our work was as elegant as it was unexpected being a departure from the tried and true methods of this theory that had dominated the field for one fifth a century. This expository article covers all previous definitions. The inability of previous definitions in solving even one case of real-world problems due to the lack of simultaneous attentions to the worthy both of vertices and edges causing us to make the new one. The concept of domination in a variety of graphs models such as crisp, weighted and fuzzy, has been in a spotlight. We turn our attention to sets of vertices in a fuzzy graph that are so close to all vertices, in a variety of ways, and study minimum such sets and their cardinality. A natural way to introduce and motivate our subject is to view it as a real-world problem. In its most elementary form, we consider the problem of reducing waste of time in transport planning. Our goal here is to first describe the previous definitions and the results, and then to provide an overview of the flows ideas in their articles. The final outcome of this article is twofold: (i) Solving the problem of reducing waste of time in transport planning at static state; (ii) Solving and having a gentle discussions on problem of reducing waste of time in transport planning at dynamic state. Finally, we discuss the results concerning holding domination that are independent of fuzzy graphs. We close with a list of currently open problems related to this subject. Most of our exposition assumes only familiarity with basic linear algebra, polynomials, fuzzy graph theory and graph theory.


fuzzy graph, fuzzy bridge, α-strong edge, nikfar domination, dynamic networks.


Computer Science and Mathematics, Computer Vision and Graphics

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