Preprint Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

A Multi-Stage Approach to a Hybrid Lead Acid Battery and Supercapacitor System for Transport Vehicles

Version 1 : Received: 6 October 2018 / Approved: 8 October 2018 / Online: 8 October 2018 (08:33:53 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 24 October 2018 / Approved: 25 October 2018 / Online: 25 October 2018 (09:40:30 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Lencwe, M.J.; Chowdhury, S.P.; Olwal, T.O. A Multi-Stage Approach to a Hybrid Lead Acid Battery and Supercapacitor System for Transport Vehicles. Energies 2018, 11, 2888. Lencwe, M.J.; Chowdhury, S.P.; Olwal, T.O. A Multi-Stage Approach to a Hybrid Lead Acid Battery and Supercapacitor System for Transport Vehicles. Energies 2018, 11, 2888.

Journal reference: Energies 2018, 11, 2888
DOI: 10.3390/en11112888

Abstract

Lead Acid Batteries (LABs) are used for starting, lighting, and igniting, as well as in air conditioning systems and to supply power to electric engines in transport vehicles (TVs). However, the application of LABs for TVs has faced a number of market challenges, mounted by the upcoming high energy density and long lifespan batteries, such as lithium ion. LABs, on the other hand, are inexpensive. The key research question is, how can the lifespan of LABs used in automotive industries be increased, while still ensuring a low cost solution? Thus, integrating LABs with the supercapacitor (known as an electric double layer capacitor—EDLC) is likely to outperform the competing alternative batteries for TVs. This paper proposes a multiple stage approach to hybrid lead acid batteries and a supercapacitor system for TVs that is capable of maintaining the battery state-of-charge (SOC) at statistically high limits, ranging between 90% and 95%. This SOC target will likely ensure that the lifespan of the hybrid battery system can be elongated (extended) more than its competitors. In this study, the multiple stage approach of concatenated converters has been designed in order to satisfy all energy storage requirements for different characteristics of LABs and the supercapacitor. The designed hybrid system has been simulated using Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB/Simulink (version R2016a, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA)). The simulated results show that high transient currents from the direct current (DC) bus of LABs, caused by the regenerative braking or deceleration of the TVs, reduce the battery lifespan and induce mechanical stress. The supercapacitor reduces the stress on the LAB by absorbing high transient currents. This, in turn, keeps the LABs’ SOC between 90% and 96% and the voltage at 12 V. As indicated by the simulated results, the hybrid battery SOC is maintained at 90–96% and the terminal voltage is approximately 12 V.

Supplementary and Associated Material

Subject Areas

lead acid battery; supercapacitor; DC/DC converter; state-of-charge

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