Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Hardness of Additively Manufactured Alloys

Version 1 : Received: 4 October 2018 / Approved: 5 October 2018 / Online: 5 October 2018 (10:00:36 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Zuback, J.; DebRoy, T. The Hardness of Additively Manufactured Alloys. Materials 2018, 11, 2070. Zuback, J.; DebRoy, T. The Hardness of Additively Manufactured Alloys. Materials 2018, 11, 2070.


The rapidly evolving field of additive manufacturing requires a periodic assessment of the progress made in understanding the properties of metallic components. Although extensive research has been undertaken by many investigators, the data on properties such as hardness from individual publications are often fragmented. When these published data are critically reviewed, several important insights that cannot be obtained from individual papers become apparent. We examine the role of cooling rate, microstructure, alloy composition, and post process heat treatment on the hardness of additively manufactured components. Hardness data for steels and aluminum alloys processed by additive manufacturing and welding are compared to understand the relative roles of manufacturing processes. Furthermore, the findings are useful to determine if a target hardness is easily attainable either by adjusting AM process variables or through appropriate alloy selection.


Additive manufacturing; Microstructure; Hardness; Mechanical properties; Aluminum alloys; Steels; Nickel alloys; Titanium alloys


Chemistry and Materials Science, Metals, Alloys and Metallurgy

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