Przystas, A.; Jovic, M.; Salmeia, K.A.; Rentsch, D.; Ferry, L.; Mispreuve, H.; Perler, H.; Gaan, S. Some Key Factors Influencing the Flame Retardancy of EDA-DOPO Containing Flexible Polyurethane Foams. Polymers2018, 10, 1115.
Przystas, A.; Jovic, M.; Salmeia, K.A.; Rentsch, D.; Ferry, L.; Mispreuve, H.; Perler, H.; Gaan, S. Some Key Factors Influencing the Flame Retardancy of EDA-DOPO Containing Flexible Polyurethane Foams. Polymers 2018, 10, 1115.
In this work we have investigated the role of various additives (emulsifier, anti-dripping agent) and formulation procedure (pre- dispersion of solid additives in polyol via milling) which influence the flame retardancy of 6,6′-[ethan-1,2-diylbis(azandiyl)]bis(6H-dibenzo[c,e][1,2]oxaphosphin-6-oxid) (EDA-DOPO) containing flexible polyurethane foams. For comparison, the flame retardancy of two additional structurally analogues bridged 9, 10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) based compounds i.e. ethanolamine-DOPO (ETA-DOPO) and ethylene glycol-DOPO (EG-DOPO) were also evaluated together with EDA-DOPO in flexible PU foams of various formulations. The flame retardancy of three bridged-DOPO compounds depends on the type of PU formulation. For certain PU formulation containing EDA-DOPO, lower fire performance was observed. Addition of emulsifier and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to these PU formulations influenced positively the flame retardancy of EDA-DOPO/PU foams. In addition, dispersion of EDA-DOPO and PTFE via milling in polyol improved the flame retardancy of the PU foams. Mechanistic studies performed using pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) and its coupling to FTIR showed no difference in the combustion efficiency of the bridged-DOPO compounds in PU foams. From these PCFC experiments we can conclude that these bridged-DOPO compounds and their decomposition products may work primarily in the gas phase as flame inhibitors. Physiochemical behavior of additives in PU formulation responsible for the improvement in the flame retardancy of PU foams was further investigated by studying the dripping behavior of the PU foams in UL 94 HB test. A high-speed camera was used to study the dripping behavior in the UL 94 HB test and results indicate a considerable reduction of a total number of melt drips and flaming drips for the flame retardant formulations. This reduction in melt drips and flaming drips during the UL 94 HB tests help PU foams achieve higher fire classification.
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