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Positron Spectroscopy of Polyvinylidene Fluoride after Helium Ions Irradiation
: Received: 1 September 2018 / Approved: 3 September 2018 / Online: 3 September 2018 (10:48:30 CEST)
Free volume is an extremely important intrinsic defect in polymers. Structurally, the free volume is the randomly distributed holes in the polymer molecular chain segments. From the perspective of molecular movement, it is also the space needed for the movement of molecular segments. In proton exchange membrane fuel cells, the free volume is also the space needed for the directional conduction of protons. Irradiation grafting sulfonated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is one of the methods to produce proton exchange membrane with good proton channel rate. Using the LYS-1 program, based on the linear absorption coefficient and backscatter coefficient models, the percentage of annihilated positrons in PVDF in the two-layer model and the three-layer model was studied, and comparing the two fitting results it is determined that the model closest to the positron annihilation percentage required by the PALS experiment is the two-layer model, which allows the percentage of positrons that are annihilated in PVDF films with a thickness of 100 μm to reach 46% using the high energy positron source 44Ti without using the positron moderator. Using positron annihilation lifetime spectrum (PALS) analysis methods, based on Eldrup's classical model of free volume, the influence of absorbed doses of α particles on the free volume and crystallinity of PVDF was investigated, respectively. Based on the two test results the model of cross-linking and degradation of polyvinylidene fluoride irradiated by α particles was determined. Afterwards, X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods was used to study the change of PVDF crystal area before and after irradiation. The XRD results are consistent with the results measured by PALS.
positron annihilation; free volume; crystallinity; XRD; polyvinylidene fluoride; helium ions; absorbed dose; cross-linking; degradation; Braking ability; linear absorption coefficient; Backscatter coefficient; bremsstrahlung
Chemistry and Materials Science, Polymers and Plastics
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