Bentham, M.; Stansby, G.; Allen, J. Innovative Multi-Site Photoplethysmography Analysis for Quantifying Pulse Amplitude and Timing Variability Characteristics in Peripheral Arterial Disease. Diseases2018, 6, 81.
Bentham, M.; Stansby, G.; Allen, J. Innovative Multi-Site Photoplethysmography Analysis for Quantifying Pulse Amplitude and Timing Variability Characteristics in Peripheral Arterial Disease. Diseases 2018, 6, 81.
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a simple-to-perform vascular optics measurement technique that can detect changes in blood volume in the microvascular tissue bed. Beat-to-beat analysis of the PPG waveform enables the study of the variability of pulse features such as amplitude and pulse arrival time (PAT), and when quantified in the time and frequency domains, has considerable potential to shed light on perfusion changes associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In this pilot study innovative multi-site bilateral finger and toe PPG recordings from 43 healthy control subjects and 31 PAD subjects were compared (recordings each at least 5 minutes, collected in a warm temperature-controlled room). Beat-to-beat normalized amplitude and PAT variability was then quantified in the time-domain using SD and IQR measures and in the frequency-domain bilaterally using Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC). Significantly reduced normalized amplitude variability (healthy control 0.0384 (IQR 0.0217-0.0744) vs PAD 0.0160 (0.0080-0.0338) (p<0.001) and significantly increased PAT variability (healthy control 0.0063 (0.0052-0.0086) vs PAD 0.0093 (0.0078-0.0144) (p<0.001) was demonstrated in PAD using the time-domain analysis. Frequency-domain analysis demonstrated significantly lower MSC values across a range of frequency bands for PAD patients. These changes suggest a loss of right-to-left body side coherence and cardiovascular control in PAD. This study has also demonstrated the feasibility of using these measurement and analysis methods in studies investigating multi-site PPG variability for a wide range of cardiac and vascular patient groups.
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