Preprint Case Report Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Multi-Analytical Investigation of Stains on Dimension Stones in Master Valentim’s Fountain, Brazil

Version 1 : Received: 6 August 2018 / Approved: 7 August 2018 / Online: 7 August 2018 (05:18:42 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

da Conceição Ribeiro, R.C.; Marques Ferreira de Figueiredo, P.; Silva Barbutti, D. Multi-Analytical Investigation of Stains on Dimension Stones in Master Valentim’s Fountain, Brazil. Minerals 2018, 8, 465. da Conceição Ribeiro, R.C.; Marques Ferreira de Figueiredo, P.; Silva Barbutti, D. Multi-Analytical Investigation of Stains on Dimension Stones in Master Valentim’s Fountain, Brazil. Minerals 2018, 8, 465.

Journal reference: Minerals 2018, 8, 465
DOI: 10.3390/min8100465

Abstract

Master Valentim’s fountain became an important historical patrimony for Brazil, being portrayed by famous artists among them Jean-Baptiste Debret. In 1938, it was registered as cultural heritage by the Brazilian National Historical and Artistic Heritage Institute (IPHAN), and in 1990 it was subjected to excavation and restoration works. The fountain was built in Gneiss and Lioz limestone, with metallic plates and mortar connecting the Gneiss blocks. Currently, deteriorations in the fountain stones can be observed such as light stains and some aesthetic modifications caused by inadequate restorations. Petrography, XRF, XRD, Physical Properties, Colorimetry, Electrical Conductivity, ICP-OES, SEM-EDX, and TGA were performed in order to characterize the Gneiss blocks, the metallic plates, the stones used in previous restorations, as well as light stains observed on the Gneiss blocks. The petrography and XRD analyses inferred that light stains may have been caused by the formation of an insoluble salt as a result of the association of the lead from the plates with other elements. The XRD analysis on the light staining area indicated presence of cerussite (PbCO3), and anglesite (PbSO4), which are the probable cause of the light stains. The SEM-EDX results suggested that sulfur is the main element associated to lead.

Subject Areas

master Valentim’s fountain; gneiss; lioz limestone; conservation and restoration

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