Lucas, R.; Mihály, J.; Lowe, G.M.; Graham, D.L.; Szklenar, M.; Szegedi, A.; Töröcsik, D.; Rühl, R. Reduced Carotenoid and Retinoid Concentrations and Altered Lycopene Isomer Ratio in Plasma of Atopic Dermatitis Patients. Nutrients2018, 10, 1390.
Lucas, R.; Mihály, J.; Lowe, G.M.; Graham, D.L.; Szklenar, M.; Szegedi, A.; Töröcsik, D.; Rühl, R. Reduced Carotenoid and Retinoid Concentrations and Altered Lycopene Isomer Ratio in Plasma of Atopic Dermatitis Patients. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1390.
In the human organism various carotenoids are present of which, some are retinoid precursors. The bioactive derivatives of these retinoids are the retinoic acids, which can potently activate nuclear hormone receptors like the retinoic acid receptor and the retinoid X receptor. In our study using an HPLC analytical approach we aimed to assess how plasma carotenoid and retinoid concentrations along with the ratio of their isomers are altered in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients (n=20) compared to healthy volunteers (HV, n=20). We found that plasma levels of the carotenoids lutein (HV 198 ± 68 ng/ml, AD 158 ± 57 ng/ml), zeaxanthin (HV 350 ± 142 ng/ml, AD 236 ± 85) as well as the retinoids retinol (HV 216 ± 89 ng/ml, AD 167 ± 76 ng/ml) and all-trans-retinoic acid (HV 1.1 ± 0.6 ng/ml, AD 0.7 ± 0.5 ng/ml) were significantly lower in AD-patients, while lycopene, α-carotene and β-carotene levels were comparable. In addition the ratios of 13-cis vs. all-trans lycopene as well as 13-cis vs. all-trans retinoic acid were increased in the plasma of AD-patients indicating an AD-specific 13C-isomerisation. A positive correlation with SCORRAD was calculated with 13-cis vs. all-trans lycopene ratio, while a negative correlation was observed with zeaxanthin plasma levels. Based on our results we conclude that in the plasma of AD-patients various carotenoids and retinoids are at lower levels, while the ratio of lycopene isomers was also altered. The higher rate of lycopene and retinoic acid isomerisation products might be a consequence of AD or might result in an altered activation of nuclear hormone receptor signaling pathways and thus maybe partly be responsible for the AD-phenotype and additionally may represent a good plasma marker for AD.
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