Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Composite and Wearable Sensor Kit for Location Aware Healthcare Monitoring and Real-Time Trauma Scoring for Survival Prediction.

Version 1 : Received: 27 June 2018 / Approved: 28 June 2018 / Online: 28 June 2018 (15:44:00 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Walinjkar, A. A Composite and Wearable Sensor Kit for Location-Aware Healthcare Monitoring and Real-Time Trauma Scoring for Survival Prediction. Appl. Syst. Innov. 2018, 1, 35. Walinjkar, A. A Composite and Wearable Sensor Kit for Location-Aware Healthcare Monitoring and Real-Time Trauma Scoring for Survival Prediction. Appl. Syst. Innov. 2018, 1, 35.

Journal reference: Appl. Syst. Innov. 2018, 1, 35
DOI: 10.3390/asi1030035

Abstract

With the availability of wearable health monitoring sensor modules like 3-Lead Electrocardiogram (ECG), Pulse Oximeter (SpO2), Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), Hall effect sensor (for measuring Respiratory Rate), Blood Pressure and Temperature measuring and sensing elements, it has now become possible to device a composite health status monitoring kit that can measure vital signs and other physiological parameters pertaining to human health in real time. Traditionally, the physiological parameters along with vital signs related examination was possible only in a hospitalized or ambulatory environment, however due to advances in sensing and embedded system technology and miniaturization of data acquisition and processing elements health monitoring has become possible even when individuals remain engaged in their day to day activities at the convenience of space and location. The patients or individuals subject to monitoring may suffer from a traumatic experience due to their medical condition and may need emergent incidence response and the critical care team may have to prepare for the treatment only after the patient arrives, which often is too late, as in case of cardiac arrests or severe injuries. The research focused on real-time health status monitoring and trauma scoring using standard physiological parameters along with standard telemetry protocols to make the critical care team aware of an emergent situation and prepare for a medical emergency. Vital signs and physiological parameters (heart rate, temperature, respiratory rate, and blood pressure, SpO2) were measured in real time from human subjects non-invasively. In order to enable monitoring of the patients engaged in day to day activities, errors due to the motion were removed using stationary wavelet transform correction (correlation coefficient of 0.9 after correction) and signals from various sensors were denoised, filtered and were encoded in a format suitable for further data analysis. A composite sensor kit capable of monitoring vital signs and physiological parameters can be very useful in incident response when an individual undergoes a traumatic experience related to stroke, cardiac arrest, fits or even injury, as along with monitoring information the kit can calculate scores related to trauma like the Injury Severity Score (ISS), National Early Warning Signs (NEWS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS). Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS), Probability of Survival (Ps) score. An open access database of vital signs and physiological parameters from Physionet, MIMIC 2 Numerics (mimicdb/numerics) database was used to calculate NEWS and RTS and to generate correlation and regression models using the vital signs/physiological parameters for a clinical class of patients with respiratory failure and admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). NEWS and RTS scores showed no significant correlation (r = 0.25, p<0.001) amongst themselves, however together NEWS and RTS showed significant correlation with Ps (blunt) (r = 0.70, p<0.001). RTS and Ps (blunt) scores showed some correlation (r = 0.63, p<0.001) and NEWS score showed significant correlation (r = 0.79, p<0.001) with Ps (blunt) scores. Furthermore, since individuals have to be monitored regardless of location, these kits have to have a built-in capability to locate the individual so that the incident response team can locate the individual based on Global Positioning System coordinates (GPS). A Quantum GIS (Geographical Information System) application using real-time GPS coordinates (OpenStreetMap coordinates) was used to calculate the shortest path using QGIS Network Analysis tool to demonstrate the calculation of shortest path and direction to locate the nearest service provider in shortest time. Along with locating the nearest healthcare service provider, it would help if the critical care team could be made aware of the physiological parameters and trauma scores using standard protocols accepted across the globe. The physiological parameters from the sensors along with the calculated trauma scores were encoded according to a standard Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) coding system and International Code of Diseases (ICD) codes and the trauma information was logged to Electronic Health Records (EHR) using Fast Health Interoperability Resources (FHIR) servers. FHIR servers provided interoperable web services to log the event information in real time. It could be concluded that analytical models trained on existing datasets can help in analyzing a traumatic experience or an injury and the information can be logged using a standard telemetry protocol as a telemedicine initiative. These scores enable the healthcare service providers to estimate the extent of trauma and prepare for medical emergency procedures and find applications in general and military healthcare.

Subject Areas

Wearable Healthcare kit; Composite IoT sensors; Trauma Scoring; TRISS; Prediction of Survival PoS; NEWS; RTS; HL7 FHIR; SNOMED-CT; Location Aware Healthcare kit; GIS GPS Healthcare kit

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