Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Cardiovascular Risk Assessment among Postmenopausal Women: A Review

Version 1 : Received: 7 June 2018 / Approved: 8 June 2018 / Online: 8 June 2018 (12:46:31 CEST)

How to cite: Barua, L.; Faruque, M.; Banik, P.C.; Ali, L. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment among Postmenopausal Women: A Review. Preprints 2018, 2018060135 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201806.0135.v1). Barua, L.; Faruque, M.; Banik, P.C.; Ali, L. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment among Postmenopausal Women: A Review. Preprints 2018, 2018060135 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201806.0135.v1).

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are rising rapidly among the postmenopausal woman but they are less likely to identify their risk by an appropriate risk assessment tool. This review evaluates available literature on cardiovascular risk assessment among postmenopausal women to provide a concise view of risk factors and disease burden among them, present risk assessment systems including their drawbacks, emergence of new risk factors and their role in risk prediction, and finally use of hormone replacement therapy during menopause. Results demonstrate that menopause is a transition point for developing CVD not due to physiological changes only but psychosocial factors like depression and marital stress are also responsible. Both conventional and emerging risk factors burden are high among postmenopausal women. Though data regarding CVD risk assessment among postmenopausal population is lacking but existing evidences claimed underestimation or overestimation of risk among women. Moreover application of different tools on same population has revealed significant variation in result. In this regard, recalibration of conventional tools with local data and new risk factors has showed improvement of risk prediction. Hormone replacement therapy during early menopause has reported beneficial to prevent CVD but in secondary prevention it has no role. All of these findings demand further studies on cardiovascular risk assessment, especially in developing countries where women after menopause are not in consideration of health strategy makers.

Subject Areas

cardiovascular risk assessment; postmenopausal women; cardiovascular risk factors; emerging risk factors; hormone replacement therapy

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