Preprint Article Version 1 This version not peer reviewed

Estimation of PM10 Health Impacts on Human within Urban Areas of Makkah city, KSA

Version 1 : Received: 13 December 2017 / Approved: 14 December 2017 / Online: 14 December 2017 (11:06:18 CET)

How to cite: Mohammed, A.M.F. Estimation of PM10 Health Impacts on Human within Urban Areas of Makkah city, KSA. Preprints 2017, 2017120089 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201712.0089.v1). Mohammed, A.M.F. Estimation of PM10 Health Impacts on Human within Urban Areas of Makkah city, KSA. Preprints 2017, 2017120089 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201712.0089.v1).

Abstract

The current study aimed to: i) Monitor levels of PM10, at Shebika, Haram, Masfala, Azizia, Awali and Mina in Makkah city, KSA during the period of 01 Shawwal 1436H – 27 Rabi Al-Awwal 1437H, by using LVS instruments; and; 2) assess health risk (non-cancer and cancer risks) on humans (children and adult) exposed to PM10 in ambient air of Makkah city.The results showed that: the high PM10 levels were found in Haram site, while the lower levels were found in Awali site. These levels were lower than that set for PM10 by PME (Daily limit of 340 µg/m3). Vehicles  emissions and constructions sources may be the main source of PM10 levels in Makkah city. The human health risk assessments showed that: the daily exposure doses of PM10 were ranked in the order: Ding > Ddermal > Dinh for children and adult in Makkah city. Ingestion of PM10 particles was the main exposure pathway for both children and adults. The HIs and cancer risk values were within the safe level, indicating that (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic) risks for humans exposed to PM10 in Makkah city were negligible.

Subject Areas

PM10; Exposure; Health risk assessment; Makkah

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