Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

A Forward GPS Multipath Simulator Based on the Vegetation Radiative Transfer Equation Model

Version 1 : Received: 17 May 2017 / Approved: 17 May 2017 / Online: 17 May 2017 (11:02:49 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Wu, X.; Jin, S.; Xia, J. A Forward GPS Multipath Simulator Based on the Vegetation Radiative Transfer Equation Model. Sensors 2017, 17, 1291. Wu, X.; Jin, S.; Xia, J. A Forward GPS Multipath Simulator Based on the Vegetation Radiative Transfer Equation Model. Sensors 2017, 17, 1291.

Journal reference: Sensors 2017, 17, 1291
DOI: 10.3390/s17061291

Abstract

GNSS have been widely used in navigation, positioning and timing. Nowadays, the multipath errors previously considered detrimental may be re-utilized for the remote sensing of geophysical parameters (soil moisture, vegetation and snow depth), e.g. GPS- Multipath Reflectometry (GPS-MR). In this paper, a new element describing bistatic scattering properties of vegetation is incorporated into the traditional GPS-MR model. This new element is the first-order radiative transfer equation model. The new forward GPS multipath simulator is able to explicitly link the vegetation parameters with GPS multipath observables (signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), code pseudorange and carrier phase observables). The trunk layer and its corresponding scattering mechanisms are ignored since GPS-MR is not suitable for high forest monitoring due to the coherence of direct and reflected signals. Based on this new model linking the GPS observables (SNR, phase and pseudorange) with detailed vegetation parameters, the developed simulator can present how the GPS signals (L1 and L2 carrier frequencies, C/A, P(Y) and L2C modulations) are transmitted (scattered and absorbed) through vegetation medium and received by GPS receivers. Simulation results show that wheat will decrease the amplitudes of GPS multipath observables, if we increase the vegetation moisture contents or the scatters sizes (stem or leaf), the amplitudes of GPS multipath observables (SNR, phase and code) decrease. Although the Specular-Ground component dominates the total specular scattering, vegetation covered ground soil moisture has almost no effects on the final multipath signatures. Our simulated results are consistent with published results for environmental parameter detections with GPS-MR.

Subject Areas

GNSS-R; multipath; radiative transfer equation model; vegetation; simulation

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