Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

A Simple, Cost-Effective Sensor for Detecting Lead Ions in Water Using Under-Potential Deposited Bismuth Sub-Layer with Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV)

Version 1 : Received: 3 April 2017 / Approved: 4 April 2017 / Online: 4 April 2017 (10:43:35 CEST)

How to cite: Dai, Y.; Liu, C.C. A Simple, Cost-Effective Sensor for Detecting Lead Ions in Water Using Under-Potential Deposited Bismuth Sub-Layer with Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV). Preprints 2017, 2017040022 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201704.0022.v1). Dai, Y.; Liu, C.C. A Simple, Cost-Effective Sensor for Detecting Lead Ions in Water Using Under-Potential Deposited Bismuth Sub-Layer with Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV). Preprints 2017, 2017040022 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201704.0022.v1).

Abstract

The accumulation of high levels of lead or lead ions in a human body is harmful, particularly to children. Its neurotoxic effect is profound, damaging the central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting in stunted growth, behavioral problems and learning disabilities. The major source of lead or lead ions comes from the drinking water and tap water. The assessment of the water quality, including lead or lead ion content, is usually completed by a regional water department professional. This assessment is time-consuming and requires expensive instruments and skilled operators.   Therefore, there is a need to produce a simple-use and relatively inexpensive method to detect lead or lead ions in water samples. This research has developed a simple-use, cost effective sensor system for the detection of lead ions in tap water. An under-potential deposited bismuth sub-layer on a thin gold film based electrochemical sensor was designed, manufactured and evaluated.   Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement technique was employed in this detection. Tap water from the Cleveland, Ohio, USA regional water district was the test medium.   Concentrations of lead ion in the range of 8 X 10-8 M to 8 x 10-4 M were evaluated.   This DPV detection system required 3 -6 minutes to complete the detection measurement. A longer measurement time of 6 minutes was used for the lower lead ion concentration. The selectivity of this lead ion sensor was very good, and Fe III, Cu II, Ni II and Mg II at a concentration level of 5×10-4 M did not interfere with the lead ion measurement.

Subject Areas

under-potential deposition; bismuth sub-layer; lead ions; DPV

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