Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Sunburn Protection by Sunscreen Sprays at Beach

Version 1 : Received: 16 March 2017 / Approved: 17 March 2017 / Online: 17 March 2017 (04:59:23 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Ou-Yang, H.; Rzendzian, R.B. Sunburn Protection by Sunscreen Sprays at Beach. Cosmetics 2017, 4, 10. Ou-Yang, H.; Rzendzian, R.B. Sunburn Protection by Sunscreen Sprays at Beach. Cosmetics 2017, 4, 10.


Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends on various factors related to human behaviors and environmental conditions. This study clinically evaluated the efficacy of two sunscreen sprays (SPF 30 and SPF 70) under natural sunlight exposure on healthy subjects at the beach. Methods: Twenty subjects were divided into two cells for the two sunscreen sprays (SPF 70 and SPF 30) in a single-center, actual usage test. The primary endpoint of the study was sunburn protection on the dorsal arms and the secondary endpoint was protection on the face and neck. Subjects stayed at the beach for 4 h after application of the sunscreens with normal beach activities. Subjects’ behavior at the beach, the amounts of sunscreen applied and reapplied, and environmental conditions were all recorded. Results: There was no significant sunburn for a majority of the subjects in either cell. However, neither sunscreen completely blocked the sunburn, especially for the face/neck area. We found that the SPF 70 sunscreen was more effective than the SPF 30 sunscreen. Conclusion: Modern sunscreen sprays, applied liberally, are effective in providing sunburn protection for the body in a beach setting.


erythema; swimming; re-application; exposed skin surface; natural sunlight


Biology and Life Sciences, Biophysics

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