Preprint Article Version 7 This version is not peer-reviewed

Realization of Maxwell’s Hypothesis An Experiment of Heat-Electric Conversion in Contradiction to the Kelvin Statement

Version 1 : Received: 14 July 2016 / Approved: 14 July 2016 / Online: 14 July 2016 (11:01:36 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 12 December 2016 / Approved: 13 December 2016 / Online: 13 December 2016 (10:19:44 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 14 December 2016 / Approved: 14 December 2016 / Online: 14 December 2016 (09:12:35 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 14 March 2017 / Approved: 14 March 2017 / Online: 14 March 2017 (13:33:44 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 12 February 2019 / Approved: 15 February 2019 / Online: 15 February 2019 (09:07:52 CET)
Version 6 : Received: 26 May 2019 / Approved: 27 May 2019 / Online: 27 May 2019 (11:41:31 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 30 July 2020 / Approved: 31 July 2020 / Online: 31 July 2020 (03:42:27 CEST)

How to cite: Fu, X.; Fu, Z. Realization of Maxwell’s Hypothesis An Experiment of Heat-Electric Conversion in Contradiction to the Kelvin Statement. Preprints 2016, 2016070028 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201607.0028.v7). Fu, X.; Fu, Z. Realization of Maxwell’s Hypothesis An Experiment of Heat-Electric Conversion in Contradiction to the Kelvin Statement. Preprints 2016, 2016070028 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201607.0028.v7).

Abstract

In a vacuum tube two identical and parallel Ag-O-Cs emitters A and B (work function 0.8eV) ceaselessly emit thermal electrons at room temperature. The thermal electrons are controlled by a static uniform magnetic field so that the number of electrons migrate from A to B exceeds the one from B to A (or vice versa). The net migration of thermal electrons from A to B quickly results in a charge distribution of A charged positively and B negatively, and a potential difference between A and B emerges, enabling a continuous output current and a stable power to an external load (e.g., a resistor). Thus, the tube cools down (slightly). The (slightly) cooled tube extracts heat from ambient air, and all the heat is converted into electric energy without other effect. We believe the experiment is in contradiction to the Kelvin statement of the second law.

Subject Areas

Maxwell’s demon; magnetic demon; entropy decrease; entropy elimination

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 31 July 2020
Commenter: Xinyong Fu
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: There are some important improvements in this new version. (1) The radii of the trajectories of the thermal electrons are not determined by their speed v (three dimensions), but the speed component u (two dimensions), which is perpendicular to the magnetic field. And we actually need to formulate a Maxwell’s speed distribution of two dimensions, and, not a volume distribution, but a beam distribution. (2) We added several new and fine figures of thermal electron trajectories to demonstrate that controlled by the magnetic field, the number of thermal electrons migrating from emitter A to emitter B really exceeds a little than the one from B to A, resulting in a potential difference between A and B, and enabling an output current and a power. (3) We have added some related mathematic equations and improved obviously the descriptions of many parts of the paper.
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