Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A Systematic Review of Recreational Nitrous Oxide Use: Implications for Policy, Service Delivery and Individuals

Version 1 : Received: 9 August 2022 / Approved: 9 August 2022 / Online: 9 August 2022 (11:29:40 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Allan, J.; Cameron, J.; Bruno, J. A Systematic Review of Recreational Nitrous Oxide Use: Implications for Policy, Service Delivery and Individuals. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 11567. Allan, J.; Cameron, J.; Bruno, J. A Systematic Review of Recreational Nitrous Oxide Use: Implications for Policy, Service Delivery and Individuals. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 11567.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 11567
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph191811567

Abstract

Background Nitrous Oxide (N₂O) is a dissociative anaesthetic that is sometimes used recreationally. The prevalence of N₂O use is difficult to quantify but appears to be increasing. Research on N₂O harms and application of harm reduction strategies are limited. The aim of this mixed method systematic review was to collate and synthesise the disparate body of research on recreational nitrous oxide use to inform harm reduction approaches tailored for young people. Methods To identify publications reporting recreational use of N₂O, a search of public health, psychology and social science databases was conducted. Databases included PubMed, CIHNAL, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. Gray literature and Google advanced search were also used. Due to limited published literature on the recreational use of N₂O, no limit was placed on publication date or study type. A thematic synthesis extracted descriptive and analytical themes from the selected studies. Quality appraisal was conducted using the CASP Tool for Qualitative studies and the Joanna Briggs Institute case report assessment tool Results The search retrieved 407 reports. Thirty-four were included in the final analysis including sixteen case reports. The included studies were primarily concerned with raising awareness of the apparently increasing use and subsequently increasing harms of recreational N₂O use. There was limited reference to policy or legislative responses in any published studies, no suggestions for harm reduction strategies or application of service level responses. In general, individuals lack awareness of N2O related harms. Conclusion The review found three key areas that deserve further consideration including: 1) policy, 2) service delivery, and 3) harm associated with N₂O use. We recommend a top-down (policy) and bottom-up (services delivery/services users) approach to harm reduction for N₂O use which also includes further consultation and research with both groups. Future research could explore young people’s experience of N₂O use including benefits and problems to inform contextually relevant harm reduction strategies.

Keywords

Nitrous Oxid; N₂O; nangs; systematic review; harm reduction; drug use

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Psychiatry & Mental Health studies

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.

We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.