Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Clinical Characteristics of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Martinique, French West Indies – A Case Series

Version 1 : Received: 5 April 2022 / Approved: 6 April 2022 / Online: 6 April 2022 (08:34:43 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Résière, D.; Florentin, J.; Mehdaoui, H.; Mahi, Z.; Gueye, P.; Hommel, D.; Pujo, J.; NKontcho, F.; Portecop, P.; Nevière, R.; Kallel, H.; Mégarbane, B. Clinical Characteristics of Ciguatera Poisoning in Martinique, French West Indies—A Case Series. Toxins 2022, 14, 535. Résière, D.; Florentin, J.; Mehdaoui, H.; Mahi, Z.; Gueye, P.; Hommel, D.; Pujo, J.; NKontcho, F.; Portecop, P.; Nevière, R.; Kallel, H.; Mégarbane, B. Clinical Characteristics of Ciguatera Poisoning in Martinique, French West Indies—A Case Series. Toxins 2022, 14, 535.

Journal reference: Toxins 2022, 14, 535
DOI: 10.3390/toxins14080535

Abstract

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the most common causes worldwide of marine poisoning associated with fish consumption from tropical areas. Its incidence is underreported. CFP cases seem to increase with grouped cases reported during summer. Exposure to ciguatoxin, the toxin responsible for CFP with sodium-channel agonistic, cholinergic, and adrenergic activities, may result in a large spectrum of manifestations. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, management, and outcome of CFP in Martinique, French West Indies. We conducted an observational retrospective single-center study for six years (October 2012 to September 2018) including all CFP patients managed by the prehospital medical services, admitted to the university hospital emergency department, or declared to the regional health agency. One hundred and forty-nine CFP patients (81females/63males; median age, 46 years [interquartile range, 34-61]) were included. Acute features consisted of general (91%; mainly, myalgia pruritus, and asthenia), gastrointestinal (90%; mainly diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea), neurological (72%; mainly, paresthesia, dysgeusia, and impairment of hot/cold feeling), and cardiovascular manifestations (22%; bradycardia, hypotension, and heart conduction disorders). Management was supportive. No patient died but symptoms persisted in 40% of the 77 patients with follow-up on day 15. CFP was mainly attributed to the ingestion of trevallies (59%), snappers (13%), and king mackerels (8%) with collective contaminations (71%). Unusual fish (tuna, salmon, and spider conchs) were suspected in rare cases. Ingestion of trevallies was associated with significantly higher persistent symptoms (odds ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, [1.20-8.00]; p=0.03). CFP incidence was 0.67 cases per 10,000 patient-years in Martinique over the study period. To conclude, CFP represents an increasing public health issue in Martinique like in other Caribbean islands. Patients present usual but possibly life-threatening features. The outcome is excellent despite frequently prolonged manifestations.

Keywords

Ciguatera; Ciguatoxin; Fish; French West Indies; Martinique; Poisoning

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacology & Toxicology

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