Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Failed Zero-Forcing Number in Neutrosophic Graphs

Version 1 : Received: 24 February 2022 / Approved: 26 February 2022 / Online: 26 February 2022 (03:37:38 CET)

How to cite: Garrett, H. Failed Zero-Forcing Number in Neutrosophic Graphs. Preprints 2022, 2022020343 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202202.0343.v1). Garrett, H. Failed Zero-Forcing Number in Neutrosophic Graphs. Preprints 2022, 2022020343 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202202.0343.v1).

Abstract

New setting is introduced to study failed zero-forcing number and failed zero-forcing neutrosophic-number. Leaf-like is a key term to have these notions. Forcing a vertex to change its color is a type of approach to force that vertex to be zero-like. Forcing a vertex which is only neighbor for zero-like vertex to be zero-like vertex but now reverse approach is on demand which is finding biggest set which doesn’t force. LetNTG : (V,E,σ,μ) be a neutrosophic graph. Then failed zero-forcing number Z(NTG) for a neutrosophic graph NTG : (V,E,σ,μ) is maximal cardinality of a set S of black vertices (whereas vertices in V (G) \ S are colored white) such that V (G) isn’t turned black after finitely many applications of “the color-change rule”: a white vertex is converted to a black vertex if it is the only white neighbor of a black vertex. Failed zero-forcing neutrosophic-number Zn(NTG) for a neutrosophic graphNTG : (V,E,σ,μ) is maximal neutrosophic cardinality of a set S of black vertices (whereas vertices in V (G) \ S are colored white) such that V (G) isn’t turned black afterfinitely many applications of “the color-change rule”: a white vertex is converted to a black vertex if it is the only white neighbor of a black vertex. Failed zero-forcing number and failed zero-forcing neutrosophic-number are about a set of vertices which are applied into the setting of neutrosophic graphs. The structure of set is studied and general results are obtained. Also, some classes of neutrosophic graphs namely path-neutrosophic graphs, cycle-neutrosophic graphs, complete-neutrosophic graphs, star-neutrosophic graphs, bipartite-neutrosophic graphs, and t-partite-neutrosophic graphs are investigated in the terms of maximal set which forms both of failed zero-forcing number and failed zero-forcing neutrosophic-number. Neutrosophic number is reused in this way. It’s applied to use the type of neutrosophic number in the way that, three values of a vertex are used and they’ve same share to construct this number to compare with other vertices. Summation of three values of vertex makes one number and applying it to a comparison. This approach facilitates identifying vertices which form failed zero-forcing number and failed zero-forcing neutrosophic-number. In path-neutrosophic graphs, the set of vertices such that every given two vertices in the set, have distance at least two, forms maximal set but with slightly differences, in cycle-neutrosophic graphs, the set of vertices such that every given two vertices in the set, have distance at least two, forms maximal set. Other classes have same approaches. In complete-neutrosophic graphs, a set of vertices excluding two vertices leads us to failed zero-forcing number and failed zero-forcing neutrosophic-number. In star-neutrosophic graphs, a set of vertices excluding only two vertices and containing center, makes maximal set. In complete-bipartite-neutrosophic graphs, a set of vertices excluding two vertices from same parts makes intended set but with slightly differences, in complete-t-partite-neutrosophic graphs, a set of vertices excluding two vertices from same parts makes intended set. In both settings, some classes of well-known neutrosophic graphs are studied. Some clarifications for each result and each definition are provided. Using basic set not to extend this set to set of all vertices has key role to have these notions in the form of failed zero-forcing number and failed zero-forcing neutrosophic-number. The cardinality of a set has eligibility to form failed zero-forcing number but the neutrosophic cardinality of a set has eligibility to call failed zero-forcing neutrosophic-number. Some results get more frameworks and perspective about these definitions. The way in that, two vertices don’t have unique connection together, opens the way to do some approaches. A vertex could affect on other vertex but there’s no usage of edges. These notions are applied into neutrosophic graphs as individuals but not family of them as drawbacks for these notions. Finding special neutrosophic graphs which are well-known, is an open way to pursue this study. Some problems are proposed to pursue this study. Basic familiarities with graph theory and neutrosophic graph theory are proposed for this article.

Keywords

failed zero-forcing number; maximal set; vertex

Subject

MATHEMATICS & COMPUTER SCIENCE, Applied Mathematics

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